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Interactions fonctionnelles entre voies signalétiques intrinsèques et voie des hormones thyroïdiennes dans les cellules souches et progéniteurs de l'épithélium intestinal

Abstract : Thyroid hormones (THs) control several aspects of gut development and homeostasis. They act through the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors (TRs) that are T3-modulated transcription factors. The paradigm is the amphibian metamorphosis, where they are responsible for gut remodeling and emergence of the stem cells (Ishizuya-Oka et al, 2009). In previous studies we showed that THs play a fundamental role in regulating the balance between cell proliferation and cell differentiation of the murine intestinal epithelial precursors. From a molecular point of view the nuclear receptor TRα1 controls several proliferation/cell-cycle genes as well as the Wnt and Notch pathways (rev. in Sirakov et al, 2104; Skah et al, 2017). In accordance with these functions, targeted expression of TRα1 in the intestinal epithelium (vil-TRα1 mice) is sufficient to induce aberrant and hyper-proliferative crypts and confers increased susceptibility to Apc-mutation dependent intestinal tumorigenic program (vil-TRα1/Apc+/1638N mice) (Kress et al, 2010). The aim of my work was to study TH- and TRα1-dependent control of intestinal stem cells. Indeed, I used the Lgr5-EGFP-ires-CreERT2 mice enable tracking, sorting and targeting the stem cells (Barker et al, 2007) crossed with tamoxifen inducible TRα1 loss-of-function (Quignodon et al, 2007) mouse model (TRα1-LOF). I studied the effect of TH/TRα1 alteration in vivo and in intestinal organoids (ex vivo). In conclusion, our results indicate that HTs and modulating TRα1 expression or activity have a rapid and strong effect on the intestinal stem cells. This work opens a new perspective in the study of TH/TRα1-dependent signal on the physiopathology of the intestinal stem cells
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Matthias Godart. Interactions fonctionnelles entre voies signalétiques intrinsèques et voie des hormones thyroïdiennes dans les cellules souches et progéniteurs de l'épithélium intestinal. Biologie cellulaire. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1138⟩. ⟨tel-03349926⟩

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