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Déterminisme de la sensibilité du blé tendre à la Fusariose de l'épi

Abstract : Wheat crops are regularly exposed to high parasitic pressure from a complex procession of pathogens that can infect different parts of the plant. Fusarium head blight, caused mainly by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, is a major concern as it affects not only the yield and quality of grains but also their health status through the production of mycotoxins. Currently, the most effective control methods are based on the combined use of genetically more resistant cultivars, adapted cultivation practices and fungicide treatments. However, during favourable climatic episodes and high parasitic pressure, these methods are all unable to effectively control the development of damaging crop epidemics, largely due to the relatively low efficacy of the sources of resistance present in cultivated varieties. Identifying more effective and, above all, more sustainable sources of resistance is now a major objective. One of the alternatives to the search for classical sources of resistance is based on the identification of key factors controlling the plant's susceptibility to a pathogen, and their use to generate resistances that are considered potentially more durable. In order to identify wheat susceptibility genes to the fungus F. graminearum, the main agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat, we have developed a large-scale exploratory strategy taking into account the diversity, dynamics and specificities of the protein molecular events attributable to the two protagonists. This strategy allowed to access for the first time to simultaneous adjustments of the plant and fungal proteomes during the early stages of the interaction, and more specifically during the 48 – 72 hpi transition. These results suggest that the fungal strategy adjusts dynamically to the context of grain development. Moreover, the over-representation of chloroplast addressing motifs found in the protein sequences of fungal effectors, associated with variations in the abundance of chloroplast proteins, suggest that this organelle could be one of the main targets of fungal effectors and a key element in the parasite manipulation process. Finally, the analysis of the molecular dialogue controlling the development of the interaction between different wheat cultivars with different fungal strains revealed the existence of a core dual-proteome whose only quantitative variations in these components explain the different levels of susceptibility or aggressiveness observed. This corpus of results makes it possible to propose susceptibility as resulting from common molecular processes between different wheat genetic backgrounds and will serve as a basis for the development of new sources of resistance.
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Submitted on : Monday, September 20, 2021 - 12:43:10 PM
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Francis Fabre. Déterminisme de la sensibilité du blé tendre à la Fusariose de l'épi. Agronomie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020CLFAC072⟩. ⟨tel-03349193⟩

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