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Theses

Réponses fonctionnelles des communautés de collemboles aux gradients climatiques.

Abstract : In a changing world soil biodiversity is threatened. Yet the ecological functioning of soils depends on its biodiversity. The study of functional traits allows us to establish the mechanistic link between an organism an ecosystem function. This PhD thesis focuses on the current use of traits in Collembola to answer climate change related questions. It particularly addresses the variability of traits in their use in existing databases. It also examines the emergence of new traits of interest allowing an organism to respond to climatic variations of the environment. We then suggest an approach in three steps. Firstly, about (i) quantifying the intraspecific trait variability of the body length of Collembola, a widely used trait, between populations from different biogeographical areas in Europe, and (ii) to study the implications of this variability in the evaluation of the community response. Secondly, we propose a new trait of interest likely to respond specifically to climate change: the ecomorphosis strategy of European species of Collembola, that enable an extended climatic niche to the animal by the switch of a set of traits from their normal form to their ecomorphic form. We thus test its potential to respond to different climatic gradients at the alpha, beta and gamma scales. Thirdly, the acquired knowledge on the body size and the ecomorphic traits are applied in a case study: functional responses of collembolan communities to an experimental climatic manipulation on the field, with a short, mid and long-term monitoring. Our main PhD thesis results show that: (i) body length is a robust trait with a stable species hierarchy; populations tend to follow a climatic pattern that make them bigger in Northern Europe compared to the rest of the continent; it is recommended to take this intraspecific variability between populations into account, otherwise the mean responses of communities could be miscalculated; (ii) in the mountains, the presence of ecomorphosis is higher in communities located at higher altitude than those at lower altitude, reflecting the temperature stress at higher thermic amplitudes; (iii) moderate climatic modifications do not have any significant effect on the temporal functional trajectory of collembolan communities. The results of this last case study do not necessarily force us to re-evaluate our previous methodological and ontological propositions but we consider pursuing these considerations in other contexts. Finally, we discuss the spatial, temporal and taxonomic limits of collembolan communities responding to climatic gradients and suggest new directions for future works.
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Submitted on : Friday, September 10, 2021 - 10:06:12 AM
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Jonathan Bonfanti. Réponses fonctionnelles des communautés de collemboles aux gradients climatiques.. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021MON30001⟩. ⟨tel-03340238⟩

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