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Impact de la température de surface sur les précipitations au nord du Golf de Guinée durant le printemps boréal aux échelles saisonnières à diurnes

Abstract : This work, concerning the West African monsoon, studies the role of surface temperature, mainly over the ocean, during the Spring Guinean coast rainfall season (north of the Gulf of Guinea), from May to July. The data used are mainly ECMWF ERA5 reanalyses, but also satellite observation data : ocean surface temperature, precipitation, cover of different types of clouds, and ocean surface wind.The first part describes the methods developed and the seasonal context in which this coastal phase of the monsoon occurs, before the migration of precipitation towards the Sahel latitude in summer.A climatological study taking into account the inter-annual variability is then carried out over the period 2008-2015. It evidences the determining role of the cold tongue (equatorial upwelling, which appears in May) on the beginning of the coastal rainy season. In addition, highlight is put on the probable role of coastal upwelling, which occurs in July along the Guinean coast between 8W and 5E. This occurence coincides with the end of this coastal precipitation, through the decrease of moisture transport coastal convergence. Then we study the diurnal cycle. Near the coast, it mainly consists in the modulation of the low layer convergence by the sea breeze / land breeze alternation. Again, the coastal upwelling seems to strengthen the sea breeze and decrease the intensity of the land breeze, thus reducing precipitation on the ocean side (which constitutes the major part of coastal precipitation).This work is completed by a study of intra-seasonal variability over the period 2000-2018. Main results are that the oceanic influence on coastal precipitation latitude gradually decreases towards the end of the coastal monsoon season, leaving then the regime of easterly waves around 700 hPa take control of precipitation. Our statistical results, nevertheless, suggest that these two synoptic « modes » interact with each other. Moreover, we find, at the intra-seasonal scale, a signal corresponding to what is found at the seasonal scale: an intensification (decrease) of coastal upwelling would indeed have the effect of reducing (increasing) coastal precipitation.
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  • HAL Id : tel-03331652, version 1

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Manuel Tanguy. Impact de la température de surface sur les précipitations au nord du Golf de Guinée durant le printemps boréal aux échelles saisonnières à diurnes. Océan, Atmosphère. Université Paris-Saclay, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021UPASJ003⟩. ⟨tel-03331652⟩

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