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Theses

Victor Serge, romancier de la révolution : le prisme du personnage et du héros collectif

Abstract : After World War I, there was a crisis of characters representation in French literature. It was based on a philosophical and epistemological uneasiness about the status and role of individual. In such a context, the fictional work of Victor Serge offers an original alternative to the question. Serge is simultaneously witness and actor of the Russian revolution and literature richness of the first revolutionary years. As he opposed to Stalin and survived the gulags, he is indeed the only writer of the revolution who could express himself freely in the 1930s.Thus, from a social and literary outlook, Serge offers us an overview of a new social literature: he had time to mature and to assimilate a new understanding of individual and collectivity role, resulting from revolution. He restores all that in his work.This thesis looks at the entire fictional work through the prism of textual analysis of making of characters. Character appeared as the matrix for the progressive construction of the novel - both the narrative medium of the story and its finality. Between fragmentation technique and epic impetus, the hero of Serge goes shared in individualized protagonist and collective actor. These two levels are linked and designed as objects of conquest.This literature of praxis and combat is being watched through a work on the plural pronoun. An empty, indeterminate label, becomes -with writing- a Marxist comprehensive grid for collectivity. Serge's work then manage to build a collective hero who converts polyphonic multiplicity into a contrasted collective actor.Nevertheless, in last Serge’s works, this prospect and literary innovation bumps into social reality of the 1930s and 1940s. Totalitarianism, the failure of a revolution, all this leads to a novel with no collective hero and therefore no individual hero as well. In Serge’s work there is a correlation of them. This disappearance turns to become its own story and ultimately paves the way to different solutions: the plot presents archetypal characters or figures of discourse. Some individuals remain in the fiction by giving themselves a sur-human dimension, a mystical one.
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Eva Réthoré. Victor Serge, romancier de la révolution : le prisme du personnage et du héros collectif. Littératures. Université de Lille, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LILUH035⟩. ⟨tel-03279532⟩

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