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Theses

La sensibilité structurelle des analogies spontanées

Abstract : Analogy is a crucial mechanism allowing one to interpret a new situation in the light of passed experiences. The present dissertation seeks to give this statement back its rightful strength by highlighting the ability to perceive as essentially similar experiences showing a different appearance. Based on the idea that analogies are a natural mechanism through which the cognitive system processes new information, a particular interest will be allotted to their spontaneous expression (i.e. without incitation by someone else to draw the comparison), as their appear through the assimilation of new experiences to familiar concepts stored in long term memory. This mechanism is considered as a motor for young children’s conceptual development.The purpose of the first three empirical studies is to test the hypothesis that familiar concepts are used to understand the deep structure of daily-life situations and to retrieve passed experiences based on structural rather than superficial similarities. Results from experimental paradigms of written story-recall, filmed situation-recall and free-recall of personal experiences confirm our hypothesis, revealing that structurally similar situations are more often retrieved than superficially similar ones. Given the role of abstract concepts in the understanding processes, the fourth study tackles the question of their development during early childhood. Our hypothesis is that cognitive and neural processes involved 4-year-olds’ processing of semantic approximations (e.g. “she is undressing the orange”) reflect the mechanism through which lexical categories with immature boundaries are applied by analogy to new situations. In line with our prediction, event-related potentials’ responses suggest that young children detect incorrect verbs incongruence (N400 effect), but not that of semantic approximations.We discuss implications and perspectives brought about by our results within a framework giving a central place to the ability to draw spontaneous comparisons in understanding processes and categories development.
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Submitted on : Friday, July 2, 2021 - 3:07:10 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03276923, version 1

Citation

Lucas Raynal. La sensibilité structurelle des analogies spontanées. Psychologie. CY Cergy Paris Université, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020CYUN1094⟩. ⟨tel-03276923⟩

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