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Améliorer la mobilité urbaine des personnes ayant un handicap cognitif en assistant la cognition spatiale : analyse exploratoire de la chaîne du déplacement et évaluation expérimentale d'un prototype d'aide à la navigation

Abstract : Getting around the city is a fundamental step in most daily activities. This activity depends on costly cognitive processes designated under the notion of "wayfinding" (Montello, 2017). These processes can become particularly complex to perform for individuals with cognitive disabilities. The needs expressed by these people, as well as the poor knowledge of their difficulties, call for an inventory of the urban mobility experienced by this population. The aim of this thesis is to analyze the components of navigation affected by cognitive disabilities and constraining the travel chain, in order to identify navigational aid solutions. To date, few studies have systematically analyzed the mobility difficulties of individuals with cognitive disabilities. A major obstacle lies in the lack of inclusion of these people in studies on spatial navigation. The objective of the first study of this thesis was to develop knowledge on mobility in the field of cognitive disabilities. Semi-directed interviews were conducted with 44 participants with cognitive disabilities and 22 control participants in order to access their experience. 218 complex situations of people's mobility were extracted. Our analyses highlight a major difference among participants with a disability in the resolution of navigation problems: the more frequent need for assistance. A multiple correspondence analysis shows several typical profiles of complex mobility events, and opens up avenues for reflection on possible solutions. The identification of these elements enables recommendations to be made to promote mobility, in particular concerning mobility aids. To date, existing navigational aids, which are based on new technologies (applications, GPS), remain weakly adapted to the cognitive needs of human beings (Grison & Gyselinck, 2019). The second study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and usability of a prototypal navigational aid, taking into account the specificities identified in the first study to adapt the aid to people with cognitive disabilities. In particular, the proposed aid prototype was based on the transmission of verbal audio instructions using urban landmarks (Denis et al., 2007). This prototype was compared to another device inspired by tools currently available to the general public, using cartographic information. 90 participants without disabilities moved around in a video game and performed spatial tasks. Half of the participants performed the experiment in a dual-task condition. This condition induced cognitive overload (Leplat & Sperandio, 1967), in order to simulate a disability. Analysis of the data collected shows positive effects of the landmark-based prototype, with more effective wayfinding for all participants using it. The evaluation of the prototypes by the participants also shows a clear preference for the landmark-based aid. On the other hand, the prototype inspired by commonly available navigational aids appears to be the most beneficial in the use of spatial representations. Our results and their possible applications are discussed, and recommendations are formulated for the future of research on spatial cognition in the field of cognitive disabilities. In particular, our results highlight situations where an aid could promote mobility, and how this aid could adapt to the behaviors of individuals.
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Submitted on : Monday, June 14, 2021 - 1:19:08 PM
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Romain Delgrange. Améliorer la mobilité urbaine des personnes ayant un handicap cognitif en assistant la cognition spatiale : analyse exploratoire de la chaîne du déplacement et évaluation expérimentale d'un prototype d'aide à la navigation. Sciences cognitives. Université de Paris, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UNIP5033⟩. ⟨tel-03259631⟩

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