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Maigreur constitutionnelle : de son diagnostic et ses caractéristiques physiologiques à l'exploration cellulaire du muscle squelettique

Abstract : Scepticism or disinterest: constitutional thinness remains little explored today, with only about forty studies published to date. The literature appears not only equivocal regarding the physiological characterisation of constitutional thinness, but also with regard to its definition and diagnosis. The first axis aimed to define the diagnosis and characterise the physiology of constitutional thinness, and the second objective was to explore the muscle tissue of this population. The present thesis work allowed to propose a decision tree to help in the diagnosis of constitutional thinness, based on a systematic review of the literature. Moreover, the meta-analytical approach showed that the constitutionally thin individuals present a specific physiology regarding body composition, energy metabolism and hormonal regulation; which is however very different from that of patients with anorexia nervosa. Preliminarily to muscle cell exploration, this doctoral work validated new methods of immunohistochemical muscle staining. Finally, the exploration of the skeletal muscle of constitutionally thin subjects revealed a strong muscular hypotrophy, a low capillarisation, an alteration of some enzymatic activities but also a low storage of muscle triglycerides and glycogen. These results have brought new insights in the understanding of this atypical physiology which characterizes constitutional thinness.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 11, 2021 - 12:42:09 PM
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Mélina Bailly. Maigreur constitutionnelle : de son diagnostic et ses caractéristiques physiologiques à l'exploration cellulaire du muscle squelettique. Santé. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020CLFAC064⟩. ⟨tel-03224027⟩

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