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De la vulnérabilité des nœuds capteurs à la certification des transactions sur le réseau, une approche de la sécurisation de l’Internet des Objets

Loïc Dalmasso 1
1 ADAC - ADAptive Computing
LIRMM - Laboratoire d'Informatique de Robotique et de Microélectronique de Montpellier
Abstract : The Internet of Things (IoT) is a global infrastructure, aiming to connect any systems of various kinds, to generate new services. While this hyperconnectivity offers many opportunities in many areas (e.g. health, industry, energy, etc.), its deployment represents a major challenge in terms of security and privacy. The use of cryptography becomes essential, particularly to ensure the confidentiality of data. Nevertheless, classical algorithms such as AES are not designed to be embedded in systems with limited resources, such as connected devices. To address this issue, the scientific community is moving towards so-called "lightweight" cryptography. Despite this term, to what extent is it relevant and in line with the resources of the connected objects ? What level of security can it achieve ?Through common metrics, the objective of the first axis of this thesis is to determine the gains of lightweight cryptography compared to the classical one, in terms of size, performance and robustness against side channel analysis, recognized as a major attack vector. This evaluation focuses on the AES- 128 standard and its close lightweight derivatives PRESENT-80/128 and more recent GIFT-64- 128/GIFT-128-128, whose bit-level oriented structure favours hardware implementation. In terms of performances, GIFT-64-128 is positioned as the best alternative, with a reduction in size by almost a factor of 10, for a 58% gain in efficiency over AES-128. In terms of resistance against side channel analysis, CPA in this thesis, lightweight cryptography is once again proving its worth, with PRESENT-128 achieving an increased robustness by a factor of 3 compared to AES-128.Although indispensable, confidentiality alone is not enough to create a secure environment. Facing the emergence of cyber attacks, an IoT ecosystem has to integrate security mechanisms to deal with various threats. In addition, its network topology is becoming conducive to decentralization for efficiency reasons. Without central organization, how can the reliability and security of a highly heterogeneous environment be ensured ?The second part of this thesis proposes a trust protocol, specifically designed for IoT. Inspired by the blockchain concept, several optimizations have been implemented, allowing to reduce the use of resources to a minimum. In an approach centered on network gateways, the results show a reduction in storage space by a factor of 3 000 compared to Bitcoin, as well as a latency divided by 18, for a consumption lower than that of a smartphone charger. Finally, an extension of the protocol is proposed to be embedded in objects. The model focuses on the trust assessment in a close environment, that means on entities where direct communication is possible. With less than 400 bytes, the protocol is capable of evaluating the trust of about ten objects, and up to thirty with only 1 KB.
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Loïc Dalmasso. De la vulnérabilité des nœuds capteurs à la certification des transactions sur le réseau, une approche de la sécurisation de l’Internet des Objets. Cryptographie et sécurité [cs.CR]. Université Montpellier, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020MONTS069⟩. ⟨tel-03223205⟩

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