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Explorer l'effet de la morphologie des réseaux viaires sur leurs conditions d'accessibilité : une approche empirique fondée sur la théorie des graphes

Abstract : This thesis aims to explore the relationship between the morphology of street networks and the accessibility offered to individuals during their trips in the urban space. The accessibility is defined as a set of favourable conditions for traveling (e.g. short distances to cover, low congestion level). This relationship is the subject of much tacit knowledge in the urban design community. Typical network morphologies or typical interventions on existing networks are recommended by urban designers, for the accessibility conditions they are supposed to offer. However, the actual effects of these recommendations on accessibility conditions are little evaluated in a formalized and systematic way. To compensate for this lack, we choose to adopt a quantitative approach based on graph theory. This allows an analysis of the morphology and accessibility conditions of networks by means of descriptors calculated on graphs, and then the study of the relationship between morphological and accessibility descriptors. Our work is exploratory. It concerns a set of ten empirical case studies, chosen for their representativity of theoretical cases recommended in urban design. We have constituted two corpuses of study. The first brings together networks with a typical morphology. This is the case of organic networks such as Paris in the Middle Ages, grid networks like Manhattan, and tree-like networks like in some American suburbs. The second corpus is made up of successive states of a network in which typical interventions, recommended in the literature, have been carried out. In this case, it concerns the creation of star-shaped breakthroughs in the street network of Paris in the 19th century. The quantitative description of the morphological characteristics and the accessibility conditions, carried out on the two corpuses, reveals some specificities of each typical network and intervention analyzed, both in terms of morphology and accessibility. Furthermore, our results allow us to identify trends in the relationship between the morphological characteristics of the studied networks and their accessibility conditions. In particular, we show that these trends are more marked for the corpus of networks with a typical morphology than for the Parisian network at different dates : in Paris, strong variations in morphological descriptors are often accompanied by weak variations in accessibility descriptors. From a thematic point of view, this result suggests that the major works carried out in the 19th century by Haussmann certainly affected the morphology of the street network, but had a little effect on the accessibility conditions offered by this network. Eventually, we conclude that the adoption of a quantitative approach to deal with the relationship between the morphology of a street network and its accessibility conditions requires a back and forth movement between the knowledge and interpretations specific to urban design and the methods and measures from other disciplines, in this case network science.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 5, 2021 - 4:36:24 PM
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Ryma Hachi. Explorer l'effet de la morphologie des réseaux viaires sur leurs conditions d'accessibilité : une approche empirique fondée sur la théorie des graphes. Géographie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020PA01H072⟩. ⟨tel-03218551⟩

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