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Composition et origine du bouquet de vieillissement des vins rouges de Bordeaux. Influences du terroir dans l'expression aromatique des vins vieux.

Abstract : Among wines, those which impart the most pleasure and magic to amateurs are very often aged wines. These are bottles preserved for many years in the hope of a great tasting. Upon opening, the taster will expect to discover the complexity and elegance of the wine's aging bouquet. This olfactory concept, in which aromas produced during bottle aging blend harmoniously with those of the wine's youth, is the gift offered by great wines to epicureans. The expression of the bouquet is purported to be very closely linked to the terroir and the vintage, both revealed during the course of aging. This thesis work is essentially devoted to demonstrating and detailing this empirical knowledge.Firstly, quantitative analysis was carried out on several molecules linking the composition of grape berries to fermentation activities and to aging. Eighty wines of different vintages from several Bordeaux vineyards “Châteaux” were studied. Analysis of the results showed that the wines each have their own molecular identity despite variability due to vintage and age. The presence of terpene compounds, derived from plant metabolism, is fundamental in the construction of this identity. This differentiation of the wines at a molecular level shows the importance of grape composition and the expression of terroir on the identity of old wines.Secondly, the parameters of the terroir (water status, nitrogen status, and grape variety, for example) were compared to the concentrations of the aromas studied, which were measured using gas chromatography techniques. This work required the development of analytical tools as well as the designing of several experiments on various scales (from laboratory to wine production units). Finally, with the aim of obtaining tools that could help predict the aging potential and the emergence of the bouquet, an additional study focusing on the precursors of bouquet aromas was initiated. Among the compounds that influence the expression of the bouquet, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) has multiple organoleptic characteristics, contributing to the “fresh fruit” and “truffle” characters of old wines. The influence of wine-growing parameters on the levels of DMS precursors (pDMS) was studied. The modulation of its levels was also explored. DMS levels, determined through the measurement of its potential, are largely influenced by the conditions of the vintage and by the stage of ripeness of the grape. However, fermentation conditions constitute a real issue for its preservation during winemaking and therefore its management at bottling. The release of DMS during aging depends on the matrix since interactions with grape tannins take place. In that context, the behavior of the DMS during tasting was clarified. The DMS could therefore be a good marker both of the terroir and the management of fermentation, as well as the way of serving old wine. This thesis presents many questions on the molecular origins of other compounds of interest, and the influence of fermentation and wine aging conditions on the aging potential and aromatic character of old wines.
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Justine Laboyrie. Composition et origine du bouquet de vieillissement des vins rouges de Bordeaux. Influences du terroir dans l'expression aromatique des vins vieux.. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020BORD0228⟩. ⟨tel-03213152⟩

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