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Modélisation et enregistrement morphologique, détritique et thermochronologique de l'érosion glaciaire

Abstract : The Cenozoic is marked by a global climatic cooling and glacial/interglacial periods which intensified in the mid-Pleistocene from return cycles of 40 ka to 100 ka. Observations show an increase in global erosion rates during the same period. Erosion impacts the dynamics of mountain ranges by focusing deformation. Thus, there is a debate for 30 years about the impact of climate on the evolution of mountain ranges, controlled at first order by tectonics. Although our understanding of glacial erosion and its impact on the relief has increased significantly since then, ambiguities remain as to its role in the recent increase in erosion rates. In this thesis work, I adopt a numerical modelling approach to constrain, firstly, the role of lithology on the spatial distribution of glacial erosion and, secondly, the impact of glacial transport on detrital thermochronology records characterising the spatial distribution of erosion. The results show that lithology controls the spatial distribution of erosion by determining the resistance of bedrock to erosion, thus impacting the morphology of glacial valleys. Glacial transport limits the lateral mixing of sediments and promotes their storage upstream in tributary glaciers showing low ice sliding velocities. This impacts the thermochronological detrital age distributions collected at the glacier fronts, by buffering the real contribution of hillslopes and promoting the contribution of low altitudes near the sampling site; this can lead to erroneous interpretations of the spatial distribution of glacial erosion. Thus, this work brings new knowledge to the current debate, as well as perspectives on the contribution of numerical modelling in the evaluation of diagnostic tools.
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 29, 2021 - 4:14:07 PM
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Maxime Bernard. Modélisation et enregistrement morphologique, détritique et thermochronologique de l'érosion glaciaire. Sciences de la Terre. Université Rennes 1, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020REN1B041⟩. ⟨tel-03212478⟩

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