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Sclérochronologie à Saint-Pierre et Miquelon : de l'échelle sub-horaire aux reconstructions multi-décennales

Abstract : Coastal ecosystems are exposed to global climate change leading to modifications of their structure and functioning. However, little is known about their environmental variability before 1950. The hard parts of long-lived marine biota hold the potential to extend instrumentally derived observations, at different temporal and spatial resolutions, in order to enhance our understanding of past environmental processes. This PhD dissertation takes place on Saint-Pierre & Miquelon (SPM), a small archipelago at the confluence of major oceanic currents marking the boundary between the North Atlantic Ocean subtropical and subpolar gyres. In addition to its global key position, a local phenomenon, leads, during the stratified period, to the largest (up to 12°C amplitude) daily (25.8 h) temperature oscillations ever observed-at any frequency-on a stratified mid latitude continental shelf. This work is based on calcified structures of local marine organism analyses, to gain insights about past environmental variability at these two scales. The relationships observed between the sclerochronological records from these different marine biota and several environmental dataset, allowed us to highlight the relevant position of SPM for studying multiple scale oceanographic variability, biological responses of different benthic species and the dynamics of coastal ecosystems, at different time scales (from the tide to the last 165 years) and space scales (from SPM archipelago to North Atlantic Ocean).
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Pierre Poitevin. Sclérochronologie à Saint-Pierre et Miquelon : de l'échelle sub-horaire aux reconstructions multi-décennales. Sciences agricoles. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BRES0108⟩. ⟨tel-03208711⟩

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