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Influence des émotions sur les processus cognitifs impliqués dans le raisonnement et la prise de décision des experts

Abstract : In this thesis, we focused on expert's reasoning and decision-making capacities. Except for one study, which is composed of two different expert populations (chess and go players), we concentrated on expert chess players. Our main objective was to show the influence of some emotional processes in expert decision. This work focused specifically on the connection between somatic marker's hypothesis and theories in psychology of expertise. Our idea is that the somatic marker hypothesis is an interesting theoretical framework to investigate and understand expert performances.We first studied the general decision-making capacities of experts through a test created specifically for somatic marker's hypothesis studies (Iowa Gambling Task ; IGT) and other tests focusing on ambiguous (Balloon Analogue Risk Task ; BART) and risky (Game of Dice Task ; GDT) situations. The purpose was to see if experts’ chess players are better than novices on those tests and to better understand the kind of decisional environment leading experts to overcome normal decision-making capacities. We showed that expert’s decision-making is better mainly in IGT. Thus, contrariwise to some results present in the literature, experts’ chess players performances don't seem to be limited to the expert field only.Then, we looked at the decisions of experts into their field. We conducted two studies using chess positions: a priming task and an adaptation of the Einstellung effect. These tasks' goals were to observe the influence of the chess positions automatic treatment on chess players performances. This automatic activation could lead to increase performances and could bring an intuitive solution in expert mind. But it can also interfere with players decisions by focusing attention on less relevant situation’s informations.Concerning experts’ general abilities, beyond expert field, results seem to indicate an efficient use of a decision emotional path which is in charge of somatic markers activation. For the studies which were conducted on expert field, somatic marker hypothesis could also, in our judgment, explain experts’ decisions modes. Then, we proposed in this thesis an expert decisions’ model involving this somatic modality.In brief, our results seem to show that somatic marker's hypothesis is an interesting theoretical framework for expert decision making capacities. Those markers are associated to anterior emotional experiences which could assist experts’ decisions within and beyond the expert field. Further research, including physiological measures, needs to be conducted to confirm the interest of somatic markers for experts’ decisions.
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 22, 2021 - 5:42:08 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, February 15, 2022 - 3:06:08 AM


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Romain Trincherini. Influence des émotions sur les processus cognitifs impliqués dans le raisonnement et la prise de décision des experts. Psychologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021BORD0001⟩. ⟨tel-03205984⟩



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