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Theses

Changements à long terme de la structure et de la diversité des peuplements de poissons de fond du plateau continental de Guyane

Abstract : In the actual context of overfishing and climate change we need to develop an ecosystem-based management of fisheries. This thesis work will try to bring answers to this issue by analyzing community assembly and the impact of French Guiana’s fishery on fish communities. As most of tropical regions, coastal waters in French Guiana have been subjected to an increase in temperature around 1°C between 1990 and 2017. However, as for only a few regions in the world, fishing pressure has collapsed in French Guiana during the same period. This case study is therefore a good opportunity to understand how tropical fish communities have responded to a progressive decreasing fishing pressure on a large scale and under climate change constraints. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for tropical fisheries with similar characteristics which tend to a more efficient ecosystem-based management with lower fishing pressure. The study showed that the environment plays a dominant role in community structure and that it has become more important over time. Results showed also significant increases in several diversity indices and an increase in theoretical maximum size spectra of surveyed fish which indicates a restructuring of communities. This recovery is associated with an increase of functional redundancy which is a key factor for the stability of ecosystems. Global results showed a great recovery capacity towards a richer and more stable state of communities in a relatively short period of time around 10 years.
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Submitted on : Friday, April 16, 2021 - 8:27:08 PM
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Vincent Vallée. Changements à long terme de la structure et de la diversité des peuplements de poissons de fond du plateau continental de Guyane. Ecologie, Environnement. Université de Guyane, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020YANE0004⟩. ⟨tel-03200837⟩

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