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L’éducation physique des élèves déficients durant le second vingtième siècle (de l’après-guerre à la fin des années 1990)

Abstract : As it comes to an end, the Second World War reveals the human disaster that the conflict is going to leave behind (Jean-Pierre Rioux, 1980). Everything must be rebuilt : bodies, minds, and the whole country. Logically, the years following the immediate after-war period experience a “health highlight” (Didier Nourrisson, 2002). In a society in which the classification of disabilities, in a logical order that opposes the normal to the pathological, the Direction Générale de l’Education Physique et des Sports (DGEPS) institute “aptitude groups” that will last for several decades. The pupils, after a meticulous summary of some of their body measurements and physical displays, are thus classified into a group where they will be taught a kind of physical education (PE), considered as the most appropriate to their needs. The goal of my studies is to highlight how, in the concept and the facts, pupils considered as “weak” physically speaking will be taken care of by the School and especially how the actors of the PE system will get together to make a cultural offer, mostly unprecedented. Through this period, the word vulnerability doesn’t concern the same group. Indeed, pupils who are vulnerable can be classified by the actors of the school institution in different ways, according to the period chosen : deficient, unfit, disabled or exempted. By that, the vocabulary chosen tells us about the vision and the representations of childhood and adolescence in accordance with what belongs to the norm or the nonstandard. What innovations are Physical Education teachers going to choose to promote a low-limit physical culture from the Second World War ? During the second half of the 20th century, how is the control of the bodies “operated” (Michel Foucault, 1975), as far as weak or disabled pupils are concerned ? Upon which medical “normality” do the actors of the time base their ideas to lead the pupils toward “good” health (physical and psychological), according to precise criteria. In the school of aptitudes, the fact that pupils that could not follow the traditional physical education course had a balanced treatment (or not) raises the issue of a symbolic and/or explicit violence. In order to build my research, I will use archive papers about physical education and physical reeducation. That is to say the “Archives nationales” from Pierrefitte-sur-Seine and Fontainebleau (when the site will open again), the “Archives du musée du sport” (located in Nice) and the archive papers from the “Musée de l’éducation” (in Rouen). From a smaller-scale point of view, the Archives from the Alsace region (department, Hospitals of Strasbourg, etc) would allow me to better understand the question of Physical Education for the young disabled at a more local scale.
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Yacine Tajri. L’éducation physique des élèves déficients durant le second vingtième siècle (de l’après-guerre à la fin des années 1990). Education. Université de Strasbourg, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020STRAG021⟩. ⟨tel-03195919⟩

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