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Analyses psychosociales des processus d’orientation genrés vers et pendant la formation d’ingénieur·e·s.

Abstract : School and vocational guidance are characterized by a gendered division: women and men do not choose the same professionals’ fields (Vouillot, 2007). This distinction is a major political and social issue that results in incentive programs and many pieces of research. Studies in educational sciences highlight the role of sociodemographic variables (e.g. gender, social origin, etc.) on career choices. Beyond these sociological elements which are traditionally considered, this thesis discusses psychosocial processes (e.g. social representation, time perspective, etc.) involved in school counseling. The first part of this study focuses on the choices of high school students by questioning them using surveys on their higher education, in particular by investigating the self-assessment of their academic results. The second part of this work focuses on an engineering school. Despite that a third of engineers are women, the male representation still affects this field (Marry, 1989). The National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) Lyon is distinctive from other school because of their strong institutional attention and work in favor of diversity: The Institut Gaston Berger, an organization of the school illustrates this observation. Nevertheless, specialization of students into the third year of school is still gender-differentiated. Studies were conducted with INSA students in a longitudinal approach. Social representations (Moscovici, 1961), the experience of education, and time perspective (Lewin, 1942) were investigated through questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and a student’s journal analysis. This research highlights the influence of the social role of gender on the decision-making processes and experiences of students. If this gender differentiation exists before and outside school, some measures, especially about communication, may be proposed.
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Marion Erouart. Analyses psychosociales des processus d’orientation genrés vers et pendant la formation d’ingénieur·e·s.. Psychologie. Université de Lyon, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LYSE2066⟩. ⟨tel-03191308⟩

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