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L’Architecture scolaire participative en milieu rural comme expression d'un nouveau modèle de développement local : Étude comparative de deux projets d’école « expérimentés » dans des communes bretonnes de moins de 500 habitants

Abstract : As a physical incarnation of the principles and symbols conveyed by the educational establishment and as a space projection of its organization, school architecture partly defines the behaviors and the individual and collective representations. It is registered on the long-term territory and influence the development of the generations to come. In an economic situation of globalisation of the education of the children, of territorialisation of the school question and decentralisation of architectural competence, school architecture is today forced to integrate either only dimensions teaching but also social dimensions, cultural and policies of the local context which are articulated between them, interfere to compose a global project which results in particular in the widening of the pedagogical team and the development of the partnerships, the mutualisation of spaces to extra-curricular activities, the opening on the city, the village and the territory. What all the more complexes the architectural order of the contemporary schools, and makes null and void the idea to design a model of school idéaltype 21st century and to think the configuration of school spaces and their installations without associating the users with it. Thus the promotion of a school modern, open on its social environment and connected to the world, lets conjecture the need for reconsidering school architecture but also for re-examining its modus operandi. In a legislative environment favourable with the implication of the citizens in the public affairs and in particular favorable to the participation citizen in the projects of public infrastructures and urban development in general, some communes make the choice of participative architecture for the construction of their school. Far from being only one simple scale of intervention, the room is an observation post privileged to apprehend the total world in change. The participation like mode of action local, closely related to the concept of participative democracy, in the reinforcement of the power of the actors to act on their destiny (empowerment) or on the contrary translates does take part a political instrumentalisation of the approach at consensual ends ou/et with the service of the process of neo-liberal individuation ? In other words which is the educational, sociological significance and policy of such a approach in the school sphere ? This work of thesis thus proposes to analyze the participative process causing construction of a school in rural environment in order to clarify the importance of the links between the school and its territory and to see how they act and evolve. Which can be the interpretation of a strong relation to the territory of proximity in a world governed by the globalisation of the exchanges, the networks and the standardization of the cultural and educational modes ? Which can be its advantages and the answers which it can give to the educational offer in terms of environment, local development, citizenship and living together ? For this reason does participative school architecture constitute a tool of social change of the rural world ? In other words, is the collaborative development of a school in rural environment the translation of the emergence of a new local development model, based on the participative relational mode ?
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 6, 2021 - 11:32:09 AM
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Laurence Lafitte. L’Architecture scolaire participative en milieu rural comme expression d'un nouveau modèle de développement local : Étude comparative de deux projets d’école « expérimentés » dans des communes bretonnes de moins de 500 habitants. Ingénierie de l'environnement. CY Cergy Paris Université, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020CYUN1073⟩. ⟨tel-03190406⟩

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