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Pour une approche discursive de la terminologie européenne et nationale, en français et en espagnol, des textes non contraignants sur les politiques sécuritaires (2001-2018)

Abstract : In reliance upon contrastive analysis, our study examines the standpoints which become manifest through the use of terminology as it relates to public policy in security matters. Our research rests upon a selection of non-binding instruments in French and in Spanish, published between 2001 and 2018 by the European Commission and by two Member States, namely France and Spain.Behind our decision to analyse documents issued by both European and domestic authorities, lie peculiarities in the way institutional discourse is produced. Recent studies in the area have shown that such discourse fosters a rhetoric of consensus, and tends to drown political debate. As it happens, these communication strategies themselves reflect clear-cut ideological standpoints. By examining how such terms circulate in an environment as diverse as the EU, one uncovers discrepancies that prove to be typical of the varied utterances produced in collective security matters.For our purpose here, we have adopted a theoretical approach that weaves the study of terminology into certain notions of French discourse analysis (ADF). Terminology places the term itself, i.e. the lexical unit used in a specialised field of knowledge, at its very core. Our own study will therefore focus on the value which the lexicon acquires when uttered by a legitimate authority – the institution – in the specific area of security policy. Terminological research has gradually shown that like lexical units, terms are bound both to the context in which they are used and to the circumstances in which their surrounding discourse is produced. Variants in the expressions used, as these emerge from each sub-corpus, will thus depend on the linguistic and extra-linguistic environment surrounding use of the term. Against that background, we have set out to ascertain whether the variants might be symptomatic of discrepant ideological standpoints. In that sense, ADF, which has traditionally dealt with the ideologies underpinning language, lends us the notions one requires to grasp the reasons that may lie behind shifts in a given term. The methodological approach has allowed us to combine lexicometric analysis of the corpus with detailed, in-context observation of a term’s inter-textual recurrences and terminographical sources. We set out our results further to a course of analysis which in reliance on deductive method, begins with selecting certain terms: “prévention”, “détection”, “répression”, “combattant terroriste étranger” et “criminalité transfrontalière”. The terms have been selected based upon upstream research into the literature of international relations, and typify the tensions that feed into academic, political and legal debate. In the first section, we examine the terms which pertain to strategic action (“prévention”, “détection”, “répression”), and in the second, we reflect on how the notions of a threat and the enemy have been conceptualised (“combattant terroriste étranger” and “criminalité transfrontalière”). Accordingly, we shall first scrutinise the stages proper to deterrence, prosecution and sentencing, before examining two expressions that are ambiguous from both a terminological and a rhetorical standpoint. These refer to the notion of border (“frontière”) and to belonging to a State.In conclusion, our work has been designed to examine the mismatches and interpretative loopholes that are generated, as terms circulate and are put to the purpose of legitimising rhetorical practices. Our thesis will demonstrate that at the end of the day, institutional discourse in security matters has obscured a debate which is nonetheless very much alive, and a worthwhile topic of concern to a far wider public
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Francesca Bisiani. Pour une approche discursive de la terminologie européenne et nationale, en français et en espagnol, des textes non contraignants sur les politiques sécuritaires (2001-2018). Linguistique. Université de Paris; Università degli studi (Udine, Italie); Università degli studi (Trieste, Italie), 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UNIP7031⟩. ⟨tel-03185475⟩

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