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Les jeunes Mahorais : entre doute et peur, le choix de la sublimation contre l'effondrement psychique

Abstract : This research in clinical psychology focuses on the young people of Mayotte with the aim of getting to know them better, to better understand their psychological functioning in relation to their socio-cultural context. It is the result of a clinical observation made in Mayotte, first as a clinical psychologist and then as a doctoral student in psychology at youth associations and at the Mamoudzou hospital. Mayotte is the French island of the Comoros archipelago, which became the 101st French department in 2011 under the presidency of Nicolas Sarkozy. It is one of those French overseas territories where the confrontation between tradition and modernity as well as the issues of loss of reference points and identity crisis are still topical. In this thesis, we looked at the mental health of the youth of Mahoras and tried to understand the organization of the island's societal functioning as well as the factors that promote sublimation among young people. Indeed, these young people are many to question themselves in a Mahoran society where self-unveiling remains taboo and emotions, more precisely psychic difficulties are stifled. It is not customary to talk about what is wrong, what hurts, about the violence that one undergoes, nor about its psychological impact. These evils passed under silence are sometimes and often trivialized and create unimaginable psychic sufferings. In this particular context, the question has been raised as to how young Mahorais organise themselves to overcome their psychological difficulties and suffering. And this has led us to raise several questions. What defence mechanisms do they use to deal with their unbearable reality ? What strategies do they use to adapt to their reality? What means do they deploy to avoid psychological collapse ? In an attempt to answer all these questions, we conducted surveys among young people aged 18 to 35 years, interviewed in clinical interviews, to whom we submitted online questionnaires, psychological evaluation scales and a personality test (MMPI-2-RF) in order to gather as much information as possible. A large number of young Mahorais participated in our surveys, both students and young graduates and employees. We selected ten young men and women to illustrate our case studies.The results of this doctoral research tell us a lot about how Mahoran society functions today and especially about the mental health of its young people. We learn, for example, that matrilineality is a specific feature of Mayotte and the role played by women, especially mothers, in the education of their children is very important in the process of their psychological development. Indeed, the mother contributes to the emotional and psychological stability of the young people met and who participated in this research. This observation inevitably raises the question of the place and role of the father in the lives of young Mahorais. It also questions the effects of this absence of the paternal figure and its repercussions on the construction of identity of young Mahorais.Torn between tradition and modernity, suffering from a loss of identity and cultural references, some young Mahorais still manage to sublimate themselves, while others collapse and develop psychiatric disorders which can, in extreme cases, lead to the act of acting. This thesis proposes to reflect on and analyse the processes that lead to such different paths.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 30, 2021 - 9:01:08 AM
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Rozette Yssouf. Les jeunes Mahorais : entre doute et peur, le choix de la sublimation contre l'effondrement psychique. Sociologie. Université de Strasbourg, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020STRAG008⟩. ⟨tel-03184994⟩

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