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Matières colorantes et grottes ornées des gorges de l'Ardèche. Méthodes d'analyse des ressources et liens culturels au Paléolithique supérieur. : application à la grotte aux Points (Aiguèze, Gard, France)

Abstract : Over the past two decades, there has been a growing desire to include the study of rock art sites in an integrated approach based on the crossing of contributions from different disciplines, both in their concepts and their data acquisition and processing methodologies, around archaeological and palaeoanthropological issues (Lebon et al., 2014; Castets, 2017; David et al., 2017; Delannoy et al., 2020).It is in this philosophy that this thesis was carried out. Its objective is to inscribe the Points cave (grotte aux Points) in its past territorial envelope based on studies of colouring and pictorial matters (Monney, 2018). This intellectual approach is based on the connection between the pictorial matters making up the graphic entities (powder), colouring matters (cohesive blocks) found in the sediments containing the remains of the Upper Paleolithic and ferruginous matters available in the local and regional environment.This work on colouring matter is based on a multiscalar methodology in situ and in the laboratory in order to describe the colouring remains and pictorial matter from a morphological, mineralogical and geochemical perspective and to extract the relevant information to recreate the operating chain from the extraction areas to their presence (on the ground, in the walls, etc.) on the study site. The integrated approach constitutes the construction vector of the different spaces, stages and elements of the “chaîne opératoire”.The contribution of this thesis is twofold. From a methodological standpoint, it offers a new look at in situ analysis techniques in rock art caves and presents specifications adapted to the archaeological questions on ferruginous matters. It has also enabled the development of new tools for the observation of walls and alteration phases. Finally, it makes it possible to highlight the physical and technical obstacles to the analysis of materials that are rich in iron, thus questioning the reproducibility of the analyses on the various "colouring" and "coloured" archaeological objects, including painted walls.With regard to past human production, despite other locks induced by the hydro-geomorphological dynamics of the karstic cavities (syn- and post-frequentation), links between pictorial materials and blocks of colouring matter in stratigraphy sequence could be established, providing a solid chronological, technical and cultural context for the rock art of the Points cave.The geological nature of the cohesive blocks of the Point Cave has been identified and related to with that of the colouring matters present in the site of the "abri des Pêcheurs" located 40 km north (Ardèche, France). The similar lithology between these two Upper Palaeolithic sites leaves assume a regionally specific exploitation of a type of raw material while the geological environment presents a wide variety of available resources (Chanteraud et al., 2019)
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Claire Chanteraud. Matières colorantes et grottes ornées des gorges de l'Ardèche. Méthodes d'analyse des ressources et liens culturels au Paléolithique supérieur. : application à la grotte aux Points (Aiguèze, Gard, France). Matériaux. Université Savoie Mont Blanc, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020CHAMA017⟩. ⟨tel-03184877⟩

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