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Phytoremédiation de déchets chlorurés en respect de la biodiversité : Application au traitement des effluents industriels et des sédiments marins

Abstract : Two types of saline waste were treated by phytoremediation: industrial effluents and marine sediments. The potential of three aquatic species, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and Juncus maritimus, to treat the Cl-ion contamination was characterised for different stages of maturity through laboratory tests. These species showed excellent adaptation to saline environments and in particular for a mature growth stage (one-year-old plants). Phytoremediation of the waste considered seems possible with significant reductions, both for effluents (50-95% reduction in 40 days) and solid matrices (5-30% reduction in 80 days). The remediation rates measured in the effluent tests are mainly explained by Cl- ion sorption mechanisms. Plants then play only a minor role via the export of their green matter. A larger scale experiment was carried out on marine sediments dredged specifically for this study. Over the experimental period studied, no plant growth was observed, resulting in no remedial effects. Several causes were identified or presupposed: the granulometry of the sediment (silt), the heat wave of 2019 or the presence of other contaminants (SO42-, metals/metalloids). Nevertheless, these tests have shown that phytoremediation as a single process for managing freshly dredged marine sediments is not suitable. New phytoremediation systems must therefore be studied on these sediments in combination with different processes such as leaching, reverse osmosis or evaporation. Moreover, in order to optimise the epuration capacities of plants in a phytoremediation process, it is necessary to use acclimatised and therefore local species. No method for tracing the geographical origin of aquaculture plants is currently recommended. A tracing tool based on the strontium isotopic ratio (87Sr/86Sr) has been studied in relation to the various frauds that can be observed in this sector. The feasibility of discriminating between geographical areas was assessed by comparing the isotopic signature of different productions throughout the world (France, Germany, Hungary, China). The characterisation of the biogeochemical cycle of Sr for aquatic plants highlighted the major contribution of irrigation water as well as that of agricultural practices, justifying the isotope ratios specific to the productions. The temporal stability of this tool was confirmed through the recultivation of foreign plants in local conditions. Thus, the stable isotopes of strontium are proving to be a valuable tool for certifying the geographical origin of aquatic plants and highlighting the frauds commonly observed in this field.
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Emmanuel Delattre. Phytoremédiation de déchets chlorurés en respect de la biodiversité : Application au traitement des effluents industriels et des sédiments marins. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Université de Nîmes, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020NIME0002⟩. ⟨tel-03178443⟩

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