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Approche multi-échelle pour la caractérisation de la réaction au feu sur un matériau bois. Développement d'une méthodologie pour l'ingénierie de la sécurité incendie.

Abstract : Increasingly, fire safety relies on fire safety engineering. This involves, in particular, using calculation codes, performing numerical simulations aimed at defining the safety rules to be applied. Thus, numerous studies have made it possible to improve the calculation codes and define the bases and technical guides to be respected for carrying out these studies. However, while this is true in the field of fire resistance, evacuation or smoke control, it is not yet the case in the field of reaction to fire. The latter represents how the material will behave as a fuel and it characterizes the ability of that material to ignite and contribute to a fire.In this context, the objective of this thesis work is to study and predict the kinetics of thermal decomposition, combustion and flame propagation of wood material. For this, the working method adopted is multi-scale, both experimental and digital. This approach allows initially to simplify the phenomena in order to determine the properties of the material, then to add complexity on an increasing scale, in order to identify the processes controlling the propagation of flame and to define the bases for an engineering study. In total, 4 working scales were studied:- At a small scale, which concerns only the solid phase. It permits to extract some properties of the material by working on samples of the order of a milligram. The properties extracted are the thermal and kinetic properties, essential to characterize the heating and thermal decomposition of the material on a larger scale.- At medium scale, including the influence of the gas phase within particularly the development of the flame on the surface of the sample. The samples are of the order of a hundred grams with a thickness identical to the final application of the product. The objective is first to identify the combustion parameters of the material, such as the heat of combustion, the rate of formation of soot, carbon monoxide, etc. Secondly, it concerns the numerical validation of all the properties extracted (thermal, kinetic and combustion properties) by comparison with the experimental data (rate of heat release, loss of mass, temperatures, etc. ).- At the intermediate scale, using samples of the order of one kilogram. It takes into account the propagation of flame on the surface of the sample. Therefore, the processes driving this propagation are studied. This scale is used to assess the ability of the code to predict the kinetics of flame propagation. Two modes of propagation are investigated: counter-current and co-current. This scale also makes it possible to establish certain bases for carrying out a reaction to fire engineering study.- At final scale, two studied modes of propagation are coupled. The objective is then to validate the observations made at the previous scale and to support the basis for an engineering study.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 9, 2021 - 11:34:26 AM
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Jérémy Colombiano. Approche multi-échelle pour la caractérisation de la réaction au feu sur un matériau bois. Développement d'une méthodologie pour l'ingénierie de la sécurité incendie.. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020ESMA0017⟩. ⟨tel-03163428⟩

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