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Comportement en fatigue et optimisation de l’interface d’un composite tissé chanvre/époxy : effet de l’humidité

Abstract : Plant fibre composites are an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional composite materials such as fibreglass composites. However, plant fibres are highly hydrophilic in comparison with the polymer matrix. It is therefore necessary to study the influence of moisture on the mechanical behaviour of these eco-materials.In this work, three conditionings were applied. “Ambient” samples were stored and tested in ambient environment. “Wet” samples were immersed in water until saturation and tested in a climatic chamber at RH97. The objective of the “Wet/Dry” conditioning was to study the role of desorption on the mechanical properties of the composite. Woven hemp/epoxy composite samples with two orientations, [(0/90)]7 and [(± 45)]7, were tested in tension and fatigue according to the three conditionings. In situ analyses by acoustic emission and post-mortem analyses by SEM and micro-CT were carried out.Fatigue tests allowed to determine the Wöhler curves for the two orientations and the three conditionings. A phenomenological model was used to simulate the fatigue life of the composite in all configurations. The comparisons showed that the Wet samples exhibit a lower tensile strength than the Ambient specimens and a lower fatigue sensitivity, while the behaviour of the Wet/dry samples is similar to the Wet conditioning one concerning the tensile strength and similar to the Ambient one concerning the fatigue sensitivity. The classification of acoustic events allowed the identification of three clusters, each cluster corresponding to a type of damage (matrix damage, interfacial damage and fibre breakage). For the two orientations, the results showed that the proportion in number and the kinetics of development of each type of damage depend on the level of the maximum applied stress and on the conditioning. Matrix and interfacial damages are largely the most numerous acoustic events for all the configurations. Micro-CT analysis showed that the damage is different depending on the orientation. However, for each orientation, the same type of damage is observed for the three conditionings, at different stages of development: more advanced for the Wet conditioning, intermediate for the Wet/Dry one and the least developed for the Ambient one.The analysis of the yarn/matrix interface adhesion was performed through fragmentation tests realised on monofilament hemp/epoxy specimens. A specific mould was designed and developed to produce these specimens by casting. Acoustic emission monitoring and observations in polarized light allowed a better understanding of the fragmentation phenomenon in this type of material. The Interfacial Shear Strength (IFSS) values were calculated and the interfacial debonding lengths were measured. The results show that the yarn/matrix interface is weakened after drying, with a decrease in IFSS of 33%. To improve adhesion at the interface, treatments with hydrogen peroxide and non-thermal plasma were applied to the hemp yarns. Fragmentation tests showed that IFSS is almost twice as high with the peroxide treatment and three times higher with plasma, compared to untreated specimens. An upscale was made by applying the hydrogen peroxide treatment to the hemp fabric. The tensile and fatigue behaviour of hemp/epoxy composites produced with this treated fabric was studied. The results obtained at this scale are disappointing. Therefore, the non-thermal plasma treatment remains the most promising solution, but applying this technique at the fabric scale is complex and requires the development of a new reactor.
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Romain Barbière. Comportement en fatigue et optimisation de l’interface d’un composite tissé chanvre/époxy : effet de l’humidité. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020ESMA0016⟩. ⟨tel-03163336⟩

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