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L'émergence des "startuppers" au Maroc : institutions, trajectoires, réseaux sociaux

Abstract : Morocco has been characterized in recent years by the emergence of associations, incubators, and other institutionalizednetworks that promote the “start-up spirit.” The circulation of these Western discursive registers, regularly associated with the idea of “modernity” and “progress”, brings to question the internal relevance of such ideas. Far from the outdated image of the few "success stories" from Silicon Valley, in this dissertation, we ask what it means to be a “start-upper” in the Morocco of the 2010s. Who are those who embark on this path, and what is their logic? The desire to demystify entrepreneurship and to study what it means to be a “startupper” is accompanied by a theoretical ambition, namely how to conceive the entrepreneur as an actor both socialized and embedded in relational structures.In the first part, we use a network analysis to understand at the macro level how start-up promotion actors or agencies (associations, incubators, etc.) seek to impose a symbolic revolution in the Moroccan field of entrepreneurship. Through a process of selection of “start-uppers” profiles and an active socialization, these “promoters” participate in the emergence of a cohesive group likel to be the ambassadors of the ideology that the western ideology of the “start-up” carries.On a more micro level, we analyze what makes an entrepreneur’s commitment to the “uncertain horizon” – that is, the creationof a “start-up” – possible. If an entrepreneur can be characterized by a willingness to act given his level of risk aversion, we show that these traits are not fixed but become active only in some biographical periods. The socio-genetic analysis of their discourses also suggests that the aspiration for financial enrichment is rarely a priority. Financial gains are secondary to the desire for distinction and to show of one’s uniqueness that often goes hand-in-hand with a trajectory of social ascension.Finally, we show that this aspiration to distinguish themselves and build their singularity is also observed at the meso level.“Start-up” entrepreneurs aspire to become autonomous, i.e. maintaining a level of social embeddedness in order to feel not constraint by networks or social groups (especially family). How “start-up” entrepreneurs mobilize their social networks to obtain resources during the creation process is particularly illustrative of their motivating drivers. On the one hand, these entrepreneurs find themselves with a desire for increased autonomy, and on the other, with the desire to construct an economically sustainable enterprise.Demystifying the figure of the entrepreneur is allowed by a multilevel analysis coupled with the analysis of temporalities thatmakes entrepreneurship possible. There is no "startupper", but individuals who, at a given moment in their existence and in a given context, find an interest in - and can - claim it.
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Quentin Chapus. L'émergence des "startuppers" au Maroc : institutions, trajectoires, réseaux sociaux. Sociologie. HESAM Université, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020HESAC023⟩. ⟨tel-03151090⟩

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