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A l'ombre des biotechnologies : reformuler la production de savoirs par la bio-ingénierie en France et aux Etats-Unis

Abstract : What is bioengineering? Associated to the rise of the ways of manipulating and controlling the living through the modification of the genome since the 70s-80s, bioengineering is frequently identified and restricted to DNA biotechnologies. Engineering the living is then synonymous with the development of genetically modified plants and transformations of the pharmaceutical industry which testify to the appearance of a new arrangement between science, industry and politics. In the mid-2000s, a community of engineers gathered around the term "synthetic biology" with the ambition to bring about the "true" bio-engineering. More than a new scientific field, this emerging community claims a real technical utopia of modification of life based on the model of electronics and computer technology breaking with DNA biotechnologies and their regulations. This utopia is nevertheless marginalized and synthetic biology ranks as a stabilized scientific domain.The thesis starts from the emergence of synthetic biology to interrogate the practices and regulations of bioengineering since the middle of the 80's. Following bioengineering then allows to update a regime of production of knowledge in the shadow of DNA biotechnologies and dominant narratives of how contemporary knowledge is produced. The term "in the shadow" then refers to neglected regulations, non-revolutionary applications, powerful and discrete actors, the economic sector under investigation, under-researched programs to account for is commonly called biotechnology and contemporary knowledge production.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, February 23, 2021 - 12:05:03 PM
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Benjamin Raimbault. A l'ombre des biotechnologies : reformuler la production de savoirs par la bio-ingénierie en France et aux Etats-Unis. Sociologie. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC0008⟩. ⟨tel-03149755⟩

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