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Analyse cinéto-statique de mécanismes de tenségrité : Application à la modélisation de cous d’oiseaux et de manipulateurs bio-inspirés

Matthieu Furet 1, 2
1 ReV - Robotique Et Vivant
LS2N - Laboratoire des Sciences du Numérique de Nantes
Abstract : A tensegrity structure is an assembly of elements in compression (bars) and elements in tension (cables, springs) held together in equilibrium. Tensegrity has been known in architecture and art for more than a century and is adapted to the modeling of living organisms. More recently, tensegrity mechanisms have been studied for their promising properties in robotics such as low inertia, natural flexibility and deployment capability. A tensegrity mechanism is obtained when one or more elements are actuated, in our case by cables. This thesis is part of the AVINECK project, in which biologists and roboticians are involved with a dual goal: to have a better understanding of nature and bird necks, and also to draw inspiration from nature in order to design innovative bio-inspired manipulators. First, a study was conducted on the kinematics of bird vertebrae. A modeling of the contacts between articular surfaces allowed to reconstruct in 3D the movement of any bird vertebra with respect to another, based on 3D scans of real vertebrae. Then, several simple mechanisms were compared in order to determine the best candidate for modeling the kinematics of bird necks. Secondly, two 1-degree of freedom (DDL) tensegrity mechanisms potentially interesting for bird neck modeling and manipulator realization were modeled. Starting from an optimal design approach, two optimal mechanisms according to a given criterion were dimensioned and then compared in order to determine the most interesting mechanism from a manipulator design point of view. The 1 DDL mechanism chosen was an antagonistically actuated anti-parallelogram, called the X mechanism. A prototype of a 2 DDL manipulator was then designed and built. A study of the geometrical model of such a manipulator revealed interesting phenomena such as the cuspidal behaviour of the robot under certain conditions. A kinetostatic study of the manipulator was then carried out. As the behavior of the manipulator strongly depends on the actuation strategy, these were listed and some of them were compared. The results obtained were verified and highlighted on a prototype. Finally, the modeling of plane manipulators was extended to N DDL manipulators. A complete dynamic model was obtained, and a design process was carried out to obtain the dimensions and specifications of a 10 DDL bio-inspired planar manipulator.
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Matthieu Furet. Analyse cinéto-statique de mécanismes de tenségrité : Application à la modélisation de cous d’oiseaux et de manipulateurs bio-inspirés. Robotique [cs.RO]. Ecole Centrale de Nantes, 2020. Français. ⟨tel-03148599⟩

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