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Impacts de la néolithisation sur l'évolution des systèmes hôtes-parasites : étude paléoparasitologique des sociétés mésolithiques et néolithiques dans le sud-est de la France et le nord-est de l'Espagne

Abstract : Paleoparasitology is the study of parasitic remains in archaeological context. The neolithization process with all that it implies in terms of socio-economic changes has helped to modify our relations to parasitic diseases. The first humanity epidemiological transition was induced by the establishment and intensification of agro-pastoral systems. The populations clustering, the sedentarisation, the presence in the same space of different species (animal and vegetable, especially allochthonous), the deforestation, the irrigation, the use of fertilizer, the parking or the storage are as many behaviors that impacted host / parasite systems. The deposits in our corpus focused on southwestern France and northeastern Spain.Through the analysis of helminth eggs, the way in which parasitic/host/environmental systems have adapted to the socio-economic transformations of human populations, as well as the health consequences on human populations of this anthropisation, have been understood. In addition, thanks to a dual approach (chronological and geographical) to European deposits with different biotopes, from our corpus integrated with those available in the bibliography, it has been possible to specify and compare the extent of human influence on parasitic/host systems. The deposits sampled in this study came from very different contexts, including chronology, geology, taphonomy and type of use. The most suitable facies for the conservation of helminth eggs were therefore identified.
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Alizé Hoffmann. Impacts de la néolithisation sur l'évolution des systèmes hôtes-parasites : étude paléoparasitologique des sociétés mésolithiques et néolithiques dans le sud-est de la France et le nord-est de l'Espagne. Archéologie et Préhistoire. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019TOU20066⟩. ⟨tel-03140383⟩

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