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Theses

Algorithmes de contrôle sans modèle pour les micro drones de type tail-sitter

Abstract : Micro Air Vehicle (MAV)s with transitioning flight capabilities, or simply Hybrid Micro Air Vehicle(HMAV)s combine the beneficial features of fixed-wing configurations in terms of endurance,with vertical take-off and landing capabilities of rotorcraft to perform five different flight phasesduring typical missions : vertical takeoff, transitioning flight, forward flight, hovering, and verticallanding. This promising MAV class has a wider flight envelope than conventional MAVs,which implies new challenges for both control community and aerodynamic designers. One ofthe major challenges of HMAVs is the fast variation of aerodynamic forces and moments duringthe transition flight phase, which is difficult to model and control accurately. In this thesis, wefocus on the development of control laws for a specific class of HMAVs, namely tail-sitters.In order to stabilize the HMAV and overcome its modeling problem, we propose a flightcontrol architecture that estimates in realtime its fast nonlinear dynamics with an intelligentfeedback controller. The proposed flight controller is designed to stabilize the HMAV attitude,velocity and position during all flight phases. By using Model-Free Control (MFC) algorithms,the proposed flight control architecture bypasses the need for a precise HMAV model that iscostly and time consuming to obtain. A comprehensive set of flight simulations covering theentire flight envelope of the HMAV is presented, with the respective analysis for each of theflight phases. Furthermore, the control performance and the limitations of the MFC architecture are discussedin order to introduce further applications in real flight experiments. Flight tests clarifyand validate the proposed control methodology in a practical context, thus solving the principalissue of HMAVs; that is, the formulation of accurate HMAV dynamic equations to designcontrol laws. In addition, from simple mathematical algorithms, MFC is easily implemented ona microprocessor without the need for high computational costs, such as time processing andmemory resources. The results obtained provide a straightforward way in which to validatethe methodological principles presented in this thesis, to certify the designed MFC parametersand to establish a conclusion regarding MFC advantages and disadvantages in theoretical andpractical contexts related to aerospace systems.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 10, 2021 - 4:28:55 PM
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Jacson Miguel Olszanecki Barth. Algorithmes de contrôle sans modèle pour les micro drones de type tail-sitter. Automatique / Robotique. Institut Supérieur de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace Toulouse, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020ESAE0011⟩. ⟨tel-03137797⟩

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