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Resonant and traveling-wave parametric amplification near the quantum limit

Abstract : A requirement for quantum information experiments using superconducting quantum circuits is the readout of extremely weak microwave signals. Quantum limited amplifiers are essential for such task and this is precisely why they occupy an always-growing importance in such experiments, particularly for superconducting quantum bits readout.In this thesis, we present two quantum limited amplifiers architectures: the first one is based on a resonator while the second one leverages a traveling-wave construction. These amplifiers both take advantage of tunable Josephson junctions (squid). It is the ideal component for quantum limited parametric amplification: it is both nonlinear and dissipationless (given its superconducting nature). This thesis demonstrates the operation of these Josephson quantum limited amplifiers and how they go beyond the state-of-the-art thanks to original design choices.An important limitation of resonant Josephson parametric amplifiers is their poor dynamic range. We identified the Kerr nonlinearity as the main cause, and we successfully managed to tailor it using Josephson junction arrays. We also developed a model in good agreement with the experimental data, therefore validating our initial assumption that the Kerr nonlinearity and saturation are linked. However, most of the resonant Josephson parametric amplifiers suffer from a fundamental issue, arising from their architecture. It is the conservation of the gain bandwidth product, therefore limiting their bandwidth. Traveling-wave architectures are well suited to overcome this limitation. However, two new issues must be dealt with: impedance matching and phase matching. To tackle the former, we developed an original and simple fabrication process in order to obtain a 50ohm matched 2000 squid array. As for the phase, we matched it by periodically modulating the impedance of the squid transmission line in order to open a photonic band gap. Therefore, we locally distort the dispersion relation. This step does not add any complexity to the initial fabrication process. Moreover, we developed a model in good agreement with experimental data while considering the nonlinear behavior of the photonic gap in a Josephson metamaterial. In addition to demonstrating high performance amplifiers poised for numerous quantum technological applications, this thesis opens the door to more fundamental quantum optics experiments taking advantage of these highly nonlinear transmission lines.With the resonant amplifiers, we measured a 1dB compression point around -117dBm and 45MHz bandwidth (at 20 db gain). With the traveling-wave amplifiers, we measured 18dB gain on a 2.25GHz bandwidth, a 1dB compression point reaching -103dBm and near quantum-limited noise performances.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 10, 2021 - 10:59:40 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03137118, version 1




Luca Planat. Resonant and traveling-wave parametric amplification near the quantum limit. Quantum Physics [quant-ph]. Université Grenoble Alpes [2020-..], 2020. English. ⟨NNT : 2020GRALY020⟩. ⟨tel-03137118⟩



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