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Une histoire politique des facultés de droit : l'image des facultés de droit dans la presse quotidienne d'information nationale sous la Troisième République (1870-1940)

Abstract : The Third Republic marks a turning point in the reorganization of law schools in France. The institutional field is revealing of the upheavals in legal education under the new regime, when it was previously imprisoned in the Napoleonic cadres of the early nineteenth century. This is how we are witnessing the creation, admittedly contained, but significant and unprecedented, of new public legal education establishments, such as in Bordeaux and Lyon. In addition, this province, acclimatized to the shadow of its big Parisian sister, then began to venture into full light, thus spurring a clear change in the university landscape. But more significant still is a cascade of reforms which relate to the degrees - license and doctorate - or the transformation of the programs, as evidenced by the irruption in the faculties of public law as well as political economy, and the many hesitations compared to young sociology. Law schools also face the challenge of ending the public monopoly on legal education with the creation of free schools. This breach, wanted by Catholics but also by Protestants in search of a seat in an increasingly anticlerical society, shattered the monolith where the state retained a quasi-monopoly to teach its law. These institutional changes are also continuing in the social field, with the densification of University players, both from the point of view of teaching staff and that of student numbers. Even if the latter is in no way comparable to the massification of after May 1968, it still marks an important development whose achievements go beyond the simple increase in staff and its logistical consequences. It is the very face of the University that takes its mark, and this is particularly true in law faculties, which are very affected by the phenomenon. Thus, education is forced to remedy the growing lack of personnel and institutions to face students who are increasingly turbulent and quick to make demands, as evidenced for example by the Lyon-Caen, Scelle or Jèze cases, which fuel political tensions within the Faculty of Law of Paris, but also those of the provinces. Finally, it is in the field of university culture that significant changes are being felt. While the academic failure is pointed out after the defeat of Sedan, which in the Interwar period, the Bordeaux professor Julien Bonnecase underlines in What is a Faculty of Law? (1929), that these are often accused of being "between heaven and earth" 1, the time has also come for reflection on legal education. The burdens of "old-style" teaching are thus increasingly contested, plunging the legal faculty into a deep crisis which will not have been resolved at the dawn of the Second World War. The institutional history of law schools, a subject that has been explored for many years, can give the image of a certain liveliness since it largely uses sources internal to the institutions. Other works, notably those of Marc Milet, take the party to study the excesses of the institution towards the outside world, in this case the investment of professors in politics.
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Kévin Brémond. Une histoire politique des facultés de droit : l'image des facultés de droit dans la presse quotidienne d'information nationale sous la Troisième République (1870-1940). Droit. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0324⟩. ⟨tel-03136788⟩

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