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Spectral analysis of random geometric graphs

Abstract : We study random geometric graphs (RGGs) to address key problems in complex networks. An RGG is constructed by uniformly distributing n nodes on a torus of dimension d and connecting two nodes if their distance does not exceed a certain threshold. Three regimes for RGGs are of particular interest. The connectivity regime in which the average vertex degree a_n grows logarithmically with n or faster. The dense regime in which a_n is linear with n. The thermodynamic regime in which a_n is a constant. We study the spectrum of RGGs normalized Laplacian (LN) and its regularized version in the three regimes. When d is fixed and n tends to infinity we prove that the limiting spectral distribution (LSD) of LN converges to Dirac distribution at 1 in the connectivity regime. In the thermodynamic regime we propose an approximation for LSD of the regularized NL and we provide an error bound on the approximation. We show that LSD of the regularized LN of an RGG is approximated by LSD of the regularized LN of a deterministic geometric graph (DGG). We study LSD of RGGs adjacency matrix in the connectivity regime. Under some conditions on a_n we show that LSD of DGGs adjacency matrix is a good approximation for LSD of RGGs for n large. We determine the spectral dimension (SD) that characterizes the return time distribution of a random walk on RGGs. We show that SD depends on the eigenvalue density (ED) of the RGG normalized Laplacian in the neighborhood of the minimum eigenvalues. Based on the analytical eigenvalues of the normalized Laplacian we show that ED in a neighborhood of the minimum value follows a power-law tail and we approximate SD of RGGs by d in the thermodynamic regime.
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Mounia Hamidouche. Spectral analysis of random geometric graphs. Signal and Image processing. Université Côte d'Azur, 2020. English. ⟨NNT : 2020COAZ4019⟩. ⟨tel-03135086⟩

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