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Organisation industrielle, relations sociales et conditions de travail dans la production pharmaceutique : trois approches complémentaires pour analyser leurs interdépendances

Abstract : This thesis organized in three chapters analyzes the disintegration of the pharmaceutical production activity from the perspective of Industrial Relations. To do so, we use successively an empirical approach, a qualitative approach and a comparative approach. The first chapter provides an empirical characterization of the externalization process between 1993 and 2016, by using public databases (EAE/ESANE/DADS). We first show that this process implies a recurrent pattern: a multinational laboratory (bigpharma) that wishes to transfer a factory to a specialized actor who becomes the subcontractor of the lab. Then, by using aggregated indicators, we exhibit that these specialized actors are facing an important deterioration of profitability. Following Berlinski (2008) or Dube and Kaplan (2010) we assess the impact of the externalization process over the distribution of qualifications and over wages. Our results indicate that, all things equal otherwise, externalization leads to an important deterioration in the remuneration conditions for subcontractor employees, between 8.5% and 21.6% on average, depending on the position in the classification. The second chapter aims to provide a better understanding of these degradations and more generally of how industrial organization affects social relations. Based on two case studies, one being iconic of multinational laboratories and the other of specialized subcontractors, we show that bigpharma subsidiaries and subcontracting companies are facing the same kind of productive and financiary segmentation. These types of segmentation are leading to economic, financiary and organizational dependency on decision centers. Our results concur to those of Doellgast and al. (2016), according to which the subsidiaries of multinational companies can be considered as internal subcontractors. We argue that the segmentation can be used as a way to defeat employee representation, which explains why employee representatives fail to maintain good work conditions in a profitable sector. Consequently, social relations might be seen as a determinant of segmentation. In the last chapter, we seek to identify the most powerful resources that an industrial relations system can confer, to enhance the ability of employee representatives to influence their working conditions. To do so, we compare the French and Quebecer systems and then the effective working conditions of two factories of the same multinational that manufacture the same products. We show that labour unity, strike and expertise are key resources. Then, we explain the differences in working and employment conditions for employees of the two subsidiaries, disentangling the respective effects of these three resources, of the position in the value chain and the control exercised by the parent company.
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Maé Geymond. Organisation industrielle, relations sociales et conditions de travail dans la production pharmaceutique : trois approches complémentaires pour analyser leurs interdépendances. Economies et finances. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020PA01E058⟩. ⟨tel-03134912⟩



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