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Effet combiné de l’exercice physique et de la vitamine D en prévention tertiaire sur des souris c57bl/6j soumises à un régime riche en graisse et en sucre : aspects métaboliques de l’obésité et des désordres associés

Abstract : Obesity is a pandemic disease arising from behavorial and social changes which are driven by modernization of actual society. These changes include an increase of physical inactivity and overconsumption of food rich in fat and sugar but also poor in micronutrients. In this context, the aim of this thesis was to evaluate physical exercise and vitamin D supplementation effects in tertiary prevention on an experimental model of obesity. First, obesogenic diet consumption led to obesity development characterized by increased adiposity, ectopic lipid accumulation in the liver as well as insulin resistance and inflammation. Firstly, we investigate vitamin D supplementation on these events occurring during obesity. While we did not observe modification of morphological parameters by vitamin D supplementation, we demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation decreased adipose tissue inflammation by limiting chemokine expression and hepatic lipid infiltration accompanied by decreased gene expression involved in lipogenesis.The second objective of this thesis was to investigate the combined effects of vitamin D supplementation and voluntary physical exercise. Unlike to what we observed by vitamin D supplementation alone, physical exercise induced a limitation in weight gain, accompanied by a reduction in adiposity mediated by decreased adipocyte hypertrophy. In addition, the double intervention restored insulin sensitivity and completely abolished hepatic lipid infiltration. This could be explained by decreased adipocyte inflammation and decreased macrophage infiltration found in both adipose tissue and liver. Thus, our results demonstrated for the first time the interest of combining physical exercise and vitamin D supplementation to fight obesity and associated metabolic disorders.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03131417
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 4, 2021 - 1:12:08 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, March 16, 2021 - 2:14:46 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Wednesday, May 5, 2021 - 6:53:29 PM

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Alexandra Marziou. Effet combiné de l’exercice physique et de la vitamine D en prévention tertiaire sur des souris c57bl/6j soumises à un régime riche en graisse et en sucre : aspects métaboliques de l’obésité et des désordres associés. Santé. Université d'Avignon, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021AVIG0362⟩. ⟨tel-03131417⟩

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