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Influence of new network architectures and usages on RF human exposure in cellular networks

Abstract : In coming years, there will be a sharp growth in wireless data traffic due to the increasing usage of mobile phones and implementation of IoT technology. Therefore, mobile network operators aim to increase the capacity of their networks, to provide higher data traffic with lower latency, and to support thousands of connections. One of the primary efforts toward these goals is to densify today's cellular Macrocell networks using Small cells to bring more coverage and higher network capacity. Small cell antennas emit lower power than Macrocells and are often deployed at low heights. As a consequence, they are closer to the user and can be implemented massively. The latter can result in an important raise in public concerns. Mobile phones are used on the one hand, for a large variety of data usages that require different amounts of data and throughput and on the other hand for making phone calls. Voice over IP applications such as Skype has become very popular since they provide cheap international voice communication and can be used on mobile devices. Since LTE systems only support packet services, the voice service uses Voice over LTE technology instead of classical circuit-switched voice technology as in GSM and UMTS. The main objective of this thesis is to characterize and analyse the influence of new network architectures and usages on the actual human exposure induced by cellular networks. In this regard, several measurement campaigns were carried out in various cities and environments. Regarding the EMF exposure in heterogeneous networks, results suggest that by implementing Small cells, the global exposure (i.e. exposure induced by mobile phone and base station antenna) reduces due to the fact that by bringing the antenna closer to the user the emitted power by mobile phone and the usage duration reduce owing to power control schemes implemented in cellular network technologies. However, the magnitude of exposure reduction depends on the location of the Small cell with respect to Macrocells. Moreover, to assess the EMF exposure of indoor users induced by Small cells, two statistical models are proposed for the uplink and downlink exposures in an LTE heterogeneous environment based on measurements. The last part of the thesis was devoted to the assessment of the exposure for new types of usages through measurements. Results suggest that the amount of uplink emitted power and the emission time duration by a mobile phone is highly dependent on the usage and network technology. Voice call communications require a continuous and generally low throughput in order to maintain the communication during the call. On the contrary, in data usage, the mobile phone requires higher data and throughput to perform the task as fast as possible. Therefore during a voice call even if the user is using the mobile phone for a relatively long time, the exposure time duration should be lower since the usage does not require high amounts of data. The temporal occupation rate for several types of voice calls for different technologies is assessed through measurements.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 3, 2021 - 5:21:21 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03130651, version 1

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Amirreza Chobineh. Influence of new network architectures and usages on RF human exposure in cellular networks. Electromagnetism. Institut Polytechnique de Paris, 2020. English. ⟨NNT : 2020IPPAT019⟩. ⟨tel-03130651⟩

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