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Les politiques sociales des entreprises : l’exemple du Sud-Est de la France sous la Troisième République et le régime de Vichy (1870-1944)

Abstract : With the second industrial revolution which starts in France, late in the nineteenth century, heavy industries and large companies are experiencing a whole new boom, especially in the south east. While the country remains essentially rural, it becomes vital for the industries to provide a large workforce for their factories. Those industries are mostly distant from large urban areas, which explains the need for the french employers to develop new services for their workforces, so they can live by the factories. These services, provided eventually with selfless generosity, serves mainly to put forward social values for the workers to embrace, which results and justify lower salaries. Because they are decided unilaterally by the management, the questioning of these rules by all the workers, or even through the nascent state interference of the Third Republic, is generally perceived by the employers with mistrust and rejection. Then, by the end of the nineteenth century, the trade union forces, which are growing more influent, was unanimously opposed by the employers, regarding social matters and the organization of production. Furthermore, the employers want to increase their influences, and not only through the spatial boundaries of their factories. Therefore, the employer is developing a broad network of influence with various local partners, especially religious, in order to improve his local hegemonic will and his influence, whether in economic or social matters. The Vichy period does not deeply change the social relations that the paternalistic industrialist maintains with his workforce but removes all possible responses from the trade union.
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Kevin Machado. Les politiques sociales des entreprises : l’exemple du Sud-Est de la France sous la Troisième République et le régime de Vichy (1870-1944). Droit. Université Côte d'Azur, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020COAZ0006⟩. ⟨tel-03117718⟩

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