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Développement d’outils d’écologie moléculaire pour un suivi intégratif des maladies transmises par les mollusques d’eau douce dans un contexte d’émergences et de changements globaux

Abstract : Global changes, whether climatic or anthropogenic, have various consequences in human and animal health, as well as for worldwide ecosystems. One of the most important is the modification of geographical ranges of species and those of their associated pathogens. It is in this context that in recent years we have witnessed a resurgence in the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases around the world. While research efforts in this field are mainly focused on viral diseases, freshwater snail-borne diseases, that affect more than 1 billion peoples around the world, are also subject to these outbreaks, which have become frequent. However, the study of the dynamics of parasites associated with these diseases focuses primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of the definitive hosts, particularly humans. Such an approach does not prevent the transmission of these parasites to humans and even less prevent an emergence event, and the existing tools used to monitor these parasites in the environment are difficult to apply at large scale. This thesis work, therefore aims to provide a more environmental vision of the dynamics of these diseases. With the example of the emergence of urogenital bilharziasis in Corsica, we analysed this emergence by integrating the study of the life history traits of the tropical parasite in question, particularly its thermo tolerance, as well as the role of mollusc intermediate hosts and wild and domestic definitive hosts in the local maintenance of the parasite lifecycle. In a second step, we have developed environmental DNA diagnostic tools for the detection of molluscs hosts in the environment in order to identify areas at risk of emergence, as well as tools for intramolluscal detection of schistosomes to identify active sites of transmission, and thus allow the environmental monitoring of the actors of these diseases. To complete these approaches, we have developed a more generalised environmental metabarcoding tool to characterise freshwater mollusc communities and initiated the development of a similar tool for the characterisation of trematode communities, in order to study the interactions between these organisms. Lastly, we discuss the integration of all these elements into new control strategies against snail-borne diseases.
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Stephen Mulero. Développement d’outils d’écologie moléculaire pour un suivi intégratif des maladies transmises par les mollusques d’eau douce dans un contexte d’émergences et de changements globaux. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Université de Perpignan, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020PERP0023⟩. ⟨tel-03117259⟩

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