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Élaboration, caractérisation et mise en œuvre d’un catalyseur dans le reformage du biogaz en vue de la production d’hydrogène vert

Abstract : Biogas production worldwide is increasing steadily. The combustion to generate heat and electricity, and the biomethane production for injection into the city gas grid are currently the two major industrial applications of biogas. Current research on biogas valorization targets the production of high-value products such as hydrogen for transportation. This is the main objective of the VABHYOGAZ3 project funded by ADEME, which aims at deploying the production of H2 from biogas in the Tarn department, France. Biogas steam reforming, adopted by the industrial partners of the VABHYOGAZ3 project, is a commonly used process in the industry to reform natural gas, but it is a highly energy-consuming process. This PhD thesis aims to develop efficient catalysts for the Dry Reforming of Methane (DRM: conversion of CH4 and CO2 into syngas - mixture of CO and H2) and for the Tri-Reforming of Biogas (Tri-RB: conversion of CH4, CO2, H2O and O2 into syngas). The ultimate goal was to optimize the energy efficiency of the overall process of H2 production through the reforming of biogas, which is essential to make the process economically viable. In fact, DRM and Tri-RB catalysts usually have the problem of catalytic deactivation due to coke deposition and thermal sintering at high temperature (> 700 °C). Obtaining an efficient catalyst under severe conditions of DRM and Tri-RM is crucial for the deployment of these processes at large industrial scale. First, a study on the thermodynamics of the overall processes for H2 production via the reforming of biogas was carried out. Mass and energy balances of these processes were also obtained by ASPEN simulation. Then, various nickel-based catalysts supported on hydroxyapatite (HAP) and on hydroxyapatite substituted with Mg (Mg_HAP) were prepared and characterized. HAP-based supports are considered to be new catalytic materials which have suitable properties for heterogeneous catalysis, in particular for high temperature processes such as DRM and Tri-RM. In this study, HAP supports having the Ca/P molar ratio of 1.55, 1.67 and 1.75, and Mg_HAP (substitution of 2.2, 5.8 and 8.5 % of Ca with Mg) have been synthesized. These supports were doped with 5 wt.% of Ni by incipient wetness impregnation method. These catalysts were evaluated for both DRB and Tri-RB reactions in a fixed bed reactor. A parametric study on the influence of operating conditions including temperature, total pressure, biogas feeding rate, and molar ratio of steam to methane (S/C) and oxygen to methane (O/C), has been performed. The objective was to compare and identify the best catalysts and the best operating conditions. Mass balances have been established experimentally. Catalytic deactivation has been discussed and evidenced. Finally, the stability of the best catalysts was studied for a long reaction time of 150-300 h, and catalyst regeneration was also performed. This work shows that Ni-based catalysts supported on HAP or on Mg_HAP are competitive to the best catalysts identified in the literature. This work also confirms the interest of the use of new HAP-based supports in heterogeneous catalysis and particularly in high temperature processes.
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Thanh Son Phan. Élaboration, caractérisation et mise en œuvre d’un catalyseur dans le reformage du biogaz en vue de la production d’hydrogène vert. Génie des procédés. Ecole des Mines d'Albi-Carmaux, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020EMAC0007⟩. ⟨tel-03097755⟩

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