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Apports de l’archéogénétique à l’étude des groupes du Second âge du Fer en France : Approche multi-scalaire

Abstract : In Europe, and more precisely in France, the Iron Age is divided into two periods: the First (800-400 BC) and the Late Iron Age (400-25 BC). This one is often associated with Celtic cultures, which have been shown to be unified through the study of Celtic art. But this apparent unity is now being questioned through recent archaeological work. While cultural diversity is well known from an archaeological point of view, it is still poorly addressed from a biological point of view. The aim of this work is to provide an unprecedented palaeogenetic and palaeogenetic analysis of individuals from three necropolises in northern France, distributed along the Seine valley, a major axis of exchange between the English Channel and Burgundy. A total of 106 haplogroups, 87 mitochondrial haplotypes and 15 paternal lines were characterized. Furthermore, 12 genomes with low coverage were obtained. At the local level, a systematic comparison of the data obtained with the available biological and archaeological records was carried out, which revealed different ways of functioning. The necropolis of Urville-Nacqueville (Normandy) appears to have a cosmopolitan population, while the one of Gurgy "Les Noisats" (Yonne) is most likely being used by a local community. The cases of Barbuise "Les Grèves de Frécul" (Yonne) and Urville-Nacqueville also reveal the complexity of the social organization of these Iron Age groups through the organisation of the funeral space. Although these necropolises host diverse communities, they share a high mitochondrial diversity, an absence of grouping based on maternal ties and a low diversity of paternal lines. These results form a cohesive set of evidence supporting a patrilocal matrimonial system and a patrilineal filiation, consistent with the data in the literature. At the regional level, the results show that sites located in the lower Seine Valley share more affinities with groups in the south of England, while those in the upper Seine Valley are closer to the populations of eastern France and occupy an intermediate position between the north and south of France, highlighting a genetic structure of these groups based on their location along this river axis. Finally, on a continental scale, the results show that the Iron Age communities of Western Europe form a consistent genetic cluster and show genetic continuity with the Bronze Age groups. The data obtained are consistent with archaeological hypotheses that focus on an economic, political and/or climatic transition to explain the Bronze Age to Iron Age transition, in agreement with the local evolution of the groups as perceived at the genetic level.
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Claire-Elise Fischer. Apports de l’archéogénétique à l’étude des groupes du Second âge du Fer en France : Approche multi-scalaire. Anthropologie biologique. Université de Bordeaux, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BORD0332⟩. ⟨tel-03092247⟩

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