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Modélisation des couplages entre les aérosols désertiques et le climat ouest-africain

Abstract : We have introduced in this thesis, a physical representation of the desert dust lifting over the Sahara, based on the work of Marticorena and Bergametti (1995) to calculate the horizontal flow of dust and the calculation of the vertical flux of dust following Alfaro and Gomes (2001) but optimized by Menut et al. (2005). To validate the calculation of dust emission in the LMDZ model, we used the "Chimere-dust" version of the chemistry-transport model Chimere. Horizontal winds from the ERA-I reanalysis are also used for nudging. The dust emission depends very nonlinearly on the surface wind shear. Simulations conducted with the version "physical standard"LMDZ5A and the version "new physic" LMDZ5B of the model LMDZ based on recent developments in the parameterization of convective boundary layer and cloud. This new version improves the representation of the diurnal cycle of wind relative to the reanalysis used for nudging. The diurnal cycle of wind from the observations and simulated by the version LMDZ5B show a maximum at the end of the morning. The impact of the better representation of diurnal cycle of wind on the dust lifting is the increasing emissions by a factor 2 to 3, that confirm the importance of dust emissions in the morning at this region of the globe. The version LMDZ5B also includes a parameterization of “cold pools” or density current resulting from the re-evaporation of rainfall in the base of the clouds. These density currents are known to contribute significantly to the dust lifting in the Sahel and the Sahara monsoon with the formation of “haboobs”. In this work, we show how a relatively simple consideration of density current's associated wind gusts (diagnosed in the model through the “Available Lifting Energy” ) allows to significantly increase dust lifting, and reconcile the simulations of the seasonal cycle of surface concentrations and the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) of dust with observations.
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  • HAL Id : tel-03092004, version 1


Birahim Moussa Gueye. Modélisation des couplages entre les aérosols désertiques et le climat ouest-africain. Climatologie. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI; Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar. Faculté des sciences, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA066145⟩. ⟨tel-03092004⟩



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