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Theses

Thermal Modeling and Cooling of Electric Motors : Application to the Propulsion of Hybrid Aircraft

Abstract : The concern of this thesis is the thermal modeling of high-specific power electric motors. The aim is to allow finding the efficient and adequate cooling solutions of the motors designed for hybrid aircraft propulsion application. Two specific power values, 5 kW/kg for the short-term (year 2025) and 10 kW/kg for the long-term (year 2035), are targeted, each with specific requirements. The investigated type of electric motors is the synchronous machine with surface-mounted permanent magnets. This motor type is constrained by relatively low values of maximum allowed temperatures in windings and magnets. Once reached, these temperature values lead to a failure in motor operation or at least to shortening its lifetime. Moreover, with a closed motor design and high heat fluxes generated, the optimization of the cooling is essential.To become acquainted with the issue, a detailed state of the art on electric machine cooling is elaborated. Then, the commonly used techniques and the recent technological advancements are analyzed with respect to our case study. Afterward, in order to predict motor thermal behavior and ensure the monitoring of critical temperatures (windings and magnets), a nodal transient model is implemented and solved on Matlab software. This latter is built for the whole system of the motor and cooling circuit. Specific conditions of the flight are taken into account, particularly the outside air temperature variation in terms of altitude and the flight mission profile. Actually, the motor losses, generating the heat in the machine, vary depending on the motor power during the mission. For the identification of crucial parameters, a Finite-Element study was conducted and corresponding correlations were elaborated to estimate the windings thermal conductivity through polynomial interpolation.Several studies were carried out involving the influence of the thermo-physical properties, the outside temperature, the coolant nature, its flow rate as well as the exchanger surface, on the temperature response of the model. This model has allowed studying several motor designs and proposing adequate cooling solutions. For each target, a final optimal configuration of the motor with its cooling system was adopted.Besides, since the electromagnetic and mechanical losses are hardly estimated in this machine type, a chapter was dedicated to identifying them through an inverse approach. A sequential technique, that uses Beck’s function specification for regularization, was developed. Three cases of unknown losses, with increasing complexity, were studied, proving the method's reliability. Finally, using the same developed low-order model, the real-time procedure also allows monitoring low-accessibility motor temperatures (specifically hot spots).Keywords : Airplanes--Motors, Therma
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 17, 2020 - 9:40:16 AM
Last modification on : Friday, December 18, 2020 - 3:28:22 AM

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Amal Zeaiter. Thermal Modeling and Cooling of Electric Motors : Application to the Propulsion of Hybrid Aircraft. Other. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2020. English. ⟨NNT : 2020ESMA0015⟩. ⟨tel-03079082⟩

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