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Altérations de la diffusion et de la fixation des métaux/métalloïdes au sein d'un échantillonneur passif de type DGT, mécanismes et impacts sur les performances de quantification

Abstract : The passive DGT sampling technique (Diffusive Gradient in Thin film) has been developed for over 20 years and seems to be reliable for metals/metalloids quantification in order to monitor water quality. To extend the sampling possibilities, the configuration of the DGT technique has undergone many modifications. The main modifications concerned the nature of the components of DGT device (binding phase and diffusive gel), the conditions (pH, ionic strength…) of exposure solution and the sampled elements. The main objective of this thesis is to assess the impact of extending the application of DGT devices on their quantification performance in two cases. The first corresponds to the selective sampling of SeIV by DGT with a binding phase that was previously validated for AsIII and SbIII. Although the selectivity of this system for SeIV could be demonstrated, the area of reliability of this device is proved to be very limited (pH ≤ 5; accumulated quantity ≤ 5 μg Se). Deficiency of the device comes from a reduction of bounded SeIV,subsequently resulting in its release from the device. The second case study concerns an extension of deployments to media with low ionic strengths (≤ 10-3 mol L-1) for two types of diffusive gels (polyacrylamide with agarose-derivative crosslinker and agarose). The low reliability of quantifications in these media, that is already identified in the literature for divalent cations, has been demonstrated for anions and trivalent cations. It has been experimentally highlighted that this low reliability is due to a Donnan effect. These two examples show that, for every extension of the application of DGT, the quantification reliability must always be checked for these new conditions. In both studied cases, the lack of reliability was explained by non-compliance with thefundamental hypotheses of the DGT operation.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 15, 2020 - 2:57:25 PM
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Anne-Lise Pommier. Altérations de la diffusion et de la fixation des métaux/métalloïdes au sein d'un échantillonneur passif de type DGT, mécanismes et impacts sur les performances de quantification. Matériaux. Université de Limoges, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LIMO0055⟩. ⟨tel-03066943⟩

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