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De la représentation à la modélisation de l'architecture : réintroduire le dessin d'esquisse en contexte BIM par sa spatialisation en réalité virtuelle

Abstract : In the field of computerized tools dedicated to architectural design, the effects of BIM on the drawings used by architects to represent their architectural projects raise questions. We are particularly studying the effect of BIM software on sketch drawing and ideation tasks in the early stages of creative design. Now standard, CAD-BIM software is based on a modeling principle that overturns the tradition of architecture representation. Would they lead to the latent exclusion of drawing practices? Are they suitable for creative design? By proposing a critique of BIM modeling for its too consensual and adialectic character for the projectual approach, we question the supposed antinomy between CAD-BIM and sketch drawing. We form the hypothesis of a possible "bimable" modality of sketch drawing. In her study entitled The Dialectics of sketching, Gabriela Goldschmidt (1991) revealed the reflexivity of the dialectic working in sketch drawing, described as an alternation between points of view - see As and see That, translating the actions of conjecturing and analyzing by graphic and linguistic means. We tried to observe this dialectic of the sketch by adapting this method to evaluate and reproduce transitions "by hand" and compare them to three computerized modalities, in computerized drawing and BIM, the last being spatialized drawing in virtual reality (VR) using a headset. Called "DialecBIM", this method of evaluating dialecticism from one sketch modality to another has produced interesting results and could be extended to other modalities. As expected, the computerized drawing and BIM modalities have a lower level of dialectic compared to the Hand, which is the reference. The surprising scores obtained by the RV mode and spatialized sketch drawing are close to those of the Hand despite the required learning and constraints (vertical station, visual fatigue, manual controller imprecision). The VR modality has particularly useful qualities for creative design based on a 3D model, BIM or other, and can be improved. Our work also leads us to discuss the method of evaluating dialecticism: the criterion of point of view changes, commutability, appearing consolidable compared to the more "robust" criterion of the quantity of arguments. Are we right to want to measure architectural qualities such as dialectic? We argue that this is useful to resist the performative, optimizing trends of BIM modeling that threaten the creative part of the architectural field.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03054390
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Submitted on : Friday, December 11, 2020 - 2:11:07 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, June 15, 2021 - 3:15:06 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, March 12, 2021 - 7:43:04 PM

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Vincent Gouezou. De la représentation à la modélisation de l'architecture : réintroduire le dessin d'esquisse en contexte BIM par sa spatialisation en réalité virtuelle. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LIL3H007⟩. ⟨tel-03054390⟩

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