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Travailler avec le tiers secteur : études de cas des politiques d'ouverture à la société dans les instituts d'expertise et de leurs effets en France de 1990 à 2020

Abstract : In recent years, public decision making on health and environmental risks has experienced a number of crises and controversies which have highlighted a significant gap in the perception of risks by experts and society. In an attempt to reduce this gap and restore the credibility of the knowledge upon which the legitimacy of decisions rests, several public agencies have implemented so-called ‘’ openness to society ‘’ policies. While opening up has increased over the last ten years or so, it is inscribed in an older movement calling for the deconfinement of science. Indeed, social science research, particularly in the field of science and technology studies (STS), has shown that the co-definition of problems and solutions with stakeholders makes it possible to produce knowledge that is more legitimate, more adaptable in uncertainty contexts and more socially appropriable. Historically, collaborations between scientific institutions have mainly benefited large companies and public decision-makers, marginalizing many actors, including associations, trade unions and local and territorial authorities. This thesis problematizes the categories of actors and organizations to which risk evaluation opens up by proposing to put to the notion of "third sector expertise" the test as a notion with perimeters redefined by institutions, socio-technical problems and social mobilizations. This thesis focuses on the changes that this opening up to the third sector produces on the research work of agencies specializing in the assessment of health and environmental risks. More specifically, it focuses on transforming the meaning that experts and their managers give to their profession and to risk management. It addresses the meaning of "opening up to society" by combining a sociology of organizations approach with a sociology of science and technology approach that does justice to the importance of the socio-technical properties of the problems dealt with by these institutions. It proposes to consider the collaboration between expertise and the third sector as a frontier object, a theatre of social, epistemic and institutional intermediation that crystallizes the transformations of health and environmental risk management in France today. This approach leads to the following results. Opening up does not transform the experimental work of experts or the evaluation standards they use. In contrast, collaborations with the third sector have an impact on future research themes (more focused on hitherto invisible risks such as the interdependence of different categories of risk), how to communicate these risks (taking much more account of public opinion and the concerns of third sector organizations and the political issues of this diversity, by multiplying meetings with third sector organizations, by putting technical experts in an interface situation rather than senior managers) and the power of third sector organizations in institutions (by opening up pluralist deliberative bodies and systematizing their representation in other institutional governance bodies)
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03052961
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 10, 2020 - 7:18:07 PM
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Lucile Ottolini. Travailler avec le tiers secteur : études de cas des politiques d'ouverture à la société dans les instituts d'expertise et de leurs effets en France de 1990 à 2020. Sociologie. Université Paris-Est, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020PESC2020⟩. ⟨tel-03052961⟩

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