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Control of AC/DC Microgrids with Renewables in the Context of Smart Grids : Including Ancillary Services and Electric Mobility

Abstract : Microgrids are a very good solution for current problems raised by the constant growth of load demand and high penetration of renewable energy sources, that results in grid modernization through “Smart-Grids” concept. The impact of distributed energy sources based on power electronics is an important concern for power systems, where natural frequency regulation for the system is hindered because of inertia reduction. In this context, Direct Current (DC) grids are considered a relevant solution, since the DC nature of power electronic devices bring technological and economical advantages compared to Alternative Current (AC). The thesis proposes the design and control of a hybrid AC/DC Microgrid to integrate different renewable sources, including solar power and braking energy recovery from trains, to energy storage systems as batteries and supercapacitors and to loads like electric vehicles or another grids (either AC or DC), for reliable operation and stability. The stabilization of the Microgrid buses’ voltages and the provision of ancillary services is assured by the proposed control strategy, where a rigorous stability study is made. A low-level distributed nonlinear controller, based on “System-of-Systems” approach is developed for proper operation of the whole Microgrid. A supercapacitor is applied to deal with transients, balancing the DC bus of the Microgrid and absorbing the energy injected by intermittent and possibly strong energy sources as energy recovery from the braking of trains and subways, while the battery realizes the power flow in long term. Dynamical feedback control based on singular perturbation analysis is developed for supercapacitor and train. A Lyapunov function is built considering the interconnected devices of the Microgrid to ensure the stability of the whole system. Simulations highlight the performance of the proposed control with parametric robustness tests and a comparison with traditional linear controller. The Virtual Synchronous Machine (VSM) approach is implemented in the Microgrid for power sharing and frequency stability improvement. An adaptive virtual inertia is proposed, then the inertia constant becomes a system’s state variable that can be designed to improve frequency stability and inertial support, where stability analysis is carried out. Therefore, the VSM is the link between DC and AC side of the Microgrid, regarding the available power in DC grid, applied for ancillary services in the AC Microgrid. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive inertia, where a comparison with droop and standard control techniques is conducted.
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 10, 2020 - 9:56:10 AM
Last modification on : Sunday, June 26, 2022 - 3:00:33 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, March 11, 2021 - 6:50:57 PM


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  • HAL Id : tel-03050337, version 1


Filipe Perez. Control of AC/DC Microgrids with Renewables in the Context of Smart Grids : Including Ancillary Services and Electric Mobility. Automatic. Université Paris-Saclay; Universidade federal de Itajuba. Brésil, 2020. English. ⟨NNT : 2020UPASG011⟩. ⟨tel-03050337⟩



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