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Comportement des capitaines, des orques Orcinus orca et des cachalots Physeter macrocephalus dans le contexte de compétition autour de la pêcherie palangrière à la légine australe Dissostichus eleginoides dans les eaux subantarctiques françaises

Abstract : Overexploitation of fisheries resources leads to increasing competition between fisheries and marine biodiversity. This competition gives rise to depredation-type interactions (consumption of fish directly on the fishing gears by marine predators). Depredation has i) socio-economic consequences for fisheries (reduced yields); ii) ecological for marine predators (increased risk of bycatch or exposure to a lethal response) and iii) ecosystems (impacts on target and auxiliary resources). This thesis proposes to study, on one of the most lucrative fisheries, the most selective but also the most exposed to depredation, the decisional mechanisms (captains) and behavioural (marine predators) involved in the depredation exerted by the orcas (Orcinus orca) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) on the demersal longline fishery targeting Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) in the French Exclusive Economic Zones of the Crozet and Kerguelen, Indian Ocean. By an original approach combining human and animal ethology against the backdrop of optimal foraging theory at two spatio-temporal scales, we show that i) this depredation is marked with a competition all the more important as the captains are experienced; (ii) odontocetes adjust their natural behaviour to benefit from the supply of food from the fisheries; (iii) no decision-making simultaneously allows high fishing yield and reduced depredation. These results highlight the importance of fisheries pressure on natural resources and the relevance of future bio economic and socio-ecosystem assessments to ensure the economic viability of fisheries and the sustainability of exploited and ancillary natural resources.
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Anaïs Janc. Comportement des capitaines, des orques Orcinus orca et des cachalots Physeter macrocephalus dans le contexte de compétition autour de la pêcherie palangrière à la légine australe Dissostichus eleginoides dans les eaux subantarctiques françaises. Sciences et techniques des pêches. Université de La Rochelle, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LAROS033⟩. ⟨tel-03047382⟩

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