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Couplage entre maturation des ARN de transfert et maturation de l’ARN ribosomique chez B. subtilis

Abstract : Cellular protein synthesis both requires functional ribosomes and mature transfer RNAs (tRNAs) as adapter molecules. The ribosomes are large essential ribonucleoprotein complexes whose biogenesis accounts for most of cellular transcription and consumes a major portion of the cell’s energy. Ribosome biogenesis is therefore tightly adjusted to the cellular needs and actively surveilled to rapidly degrade defective particles that could interfere with translation. Interestingly, tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are both transcribed from longer primary transcripts and universally require processing to become functional for translation. In this thesis, I have characterized a coupling mechanism between tRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. Accumulation of immature tRNAs during tRNA maturase depletion, specifically abolishes 16S rRNA 3’ processing by the endonuclease YqfG/YbeY, the last step in small ribosomal subunit formation. We showed that this maturation deficiency resulted from a late small subunit (30S) assembly defect coinciding with changes in expression of several key 30S assembly cofactors, mediated by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional effects. Interestingly, our results indicate that accumulation of immature tRNAs is sensed by the stringent factor RelA and triggers (p)ppGpp production. We showed that (p)ppGpp synthesis and the accompanying decrease in GTP levels inhibits 16S rRNA 3’ processing, most likely by affecting GTPases involved in ribosome assembly. The inhibition of 16S rRNA 3’ processing is thought to further lead to degradation of partially assembled particles by RNase R. Thus, we propose a model where RelA senses temporary slow-downs in tRNA maturation and this leads to an appropriate readjustment of ribosome biogenesis. This coupling mechanism would maintain the physiological balance between tRNAs and rRNAs, the two major components of the translation machinery.
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Submitted on : Friday, November 27, 2020 - 3:52:15 PM
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Aude Trinquier. Couplage entre maturation des ARN de transfert et maturation de l’ARN ribosomique chez B. subtilis. Sciences agricoles. Université de Paris, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019UNIP7066⟩. ⟨tel-03028464⟩

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