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Systèmes binaire : formation, évolution et environnement

Abstract : Accreting binary systems are stellar couples in which a compact object (white dwarf, neutron star, black hole) feeds on a regular star. This accretion phase in the life of a binary shows characteristic high-energy emission, and can cause the formation of relativistic jets as well as a transient behavior which goes from violent outbursts to quiescent periods. These objects contribute significantly to the X-ray and gamma radiation in the universe, and since 2015 we know they are the progenitors of spectacular collisions between compact objects, which at the end of their lives radiate gravitationnal waves. Because more than half of the stars in our Galaxy spend at least a part of their lives within a binary, studying these systems is key to better understand stellar evolution in general. This thesis starts from an intial questioning about the origin of binary systems, of their diversity and the different evolutionnary paths they take, as well as the intricacy of their local environment. The tools we use to adress these topics are mainly observation-oriented. In particular, we will try to make full use of the multi-wavelength properties of binaries in the studies we present. The first part is a general introduction which covers the basics of stellar evolution, the processes taking place within binary systems, and also introduces practical aspects about observations such as the messengers and the observables that are associated. The second part is about a project of census concerning accreting binaries. We correlate previous catalogues with the Centre de Données Astronomiques de Starsbourg to update some of the information about the binaries, and also try to find counterparts of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXB) among the detections of the Gaia satellite. This census will be used in a project studying the natal kick of HMXBs and will also be the starting point to look for progenitors of compact binaries which will be detected by the gravitationnal satellite LISA. The third part aims to actively participate in the census of X-ray binaries by determining the nature of unidentified INTEGRAL sources (IGR). We present the analysis of spectrophotometric data in near-infrared acquired with VLT/ISAAC on 14 IGR sources. Among them, we identified 9 new accreting binaries and 5 active galactic nuclei. The fourth part focuses on a particular system. IGR J16318-4848 is an obscured supergiant B[e] high-mass X-ray binary, and posesses a complex environment which we aim to characterize. We report on spectroscopic acquisitions with VLT/X-Shooter which allow us to probe the dynamics of the stellar wind from the supergiant star, the orbital motion of the dusty circumbinary disk as well as its own metal-rich wind. By modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution down to the far-infrared (Spitzer, Herschel), we determine the temperature of the emitting media as well as their absolute scales. The fifth part is a study on a transient source, the microquasar Swift J1745-26, made of a low-mass star orbiting a black hole. It was detected in X-rays down to radio waves late 2012 during outburst, and was observed again five months later during its decay. We use photometric data from VLT/FORS2, ISAAC in optical and near-infrared as well as soft and hard X-ray measurements (Swift/BAT, XRT) in order to compare the broadband spectral energy distributions at these two epochs. The variations in luminosity can be especially explained by a change in the internal radius of an accretion disk around the black hole. We conclude this manuscript by doing a summary of the results we brought on these topics, and also do a short review of the future prospects in the field of accreting binaries.
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Francis Fortin. Systèmes binaire : formation, évolution et environnement. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Université de Paris, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019UNIP7071⟩. ⟨tel-03014465⟩

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