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Theses

Speciation analysis in renewable feedstocks and petroleum heavy oil fractions

Abstract : This thesis incorporates the application of several analytical methodologies to the speciation analysis of renewable feedstocks and petroleum heavy oil fractions. Separation techniques such as gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) have been combinedwith the elemental detection that inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) provides to obtain a fingerprint of those species of interest, based on their hydrodynamic volume, present in samples with complex matrices. However, the combination of these separation techniques with ICP-MS was not an easy task.With the purpose of providing to the analytical chemistry platform with novel approaches for the speciation analysis of complex samples, two novel tools have been devised during this three-year’s project: (1) a cheap alternative to the current total consumption nebulisers, produced via 3D-printing and whose capillary has been built in PEEK, has been developed and validated for the analysis of trace elements in organic matrices via GPC-ICP-MS and (2) a novel interface has been designed and optimised for the trace element analysis via SFC-ICP-MS. Although very promising results have been obtained, further experiments must be carried out with these two methodologies to obtain a better understanding of the inorganic species present in renewable feedstocks and bio-oils.The size distribution of sulfur, nickel and vanadium species in atmospheric residue fractions has been obtained via GPC-ICP-HRMS analyses to track and understand their evolution during two important industrial processes that are destined to convert these heavy oils into transportation fuels: hydrodemetallization and hydrodesulfurization. Furthermore, the phosphorus-, sodium-, iron-, magnesium- and sulfur-containing species’ size distributions in lignocellulosic fast pyrolysis oils and fatty acid feedstocks have been also obtained, demonstrating that high-molecular aggregates are formed within these complex samples when they are stored.Alternative methodologies for the analysis of renewable feedstocks have been tested. The use of electrothermal vaporisation coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ETV-ICP-OES) has provided with highly promising results. A methodology that does not require the use of freon-R12 gas has been optimised and validated for the total analysis of eight trace elements in complex samples. Besides, the distribution of the species containing trace elements such as P, Na, Mg and Al among others, based on their vaporisation temperatures, has been obtained.
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Submitted on : Monday, November 16, 2020 - 3:28:26 PM
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Victor Garcia Montoto. Speciation analysis in renewable feedstocks and petroleum heavy oil fractions. Analytical chemistry. Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, 2020. English. ⟨NNT : 2020PAUU3009⟩. ⟨tel-03007872⟩

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