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The spindle assembly checkpoint in Phallusia mammillata embryos

Abstract : During mitosis, progression through anaphase must take place only when all chromosomes are correctly attached to spindle microtubules to avoid chromosome mis-segregation and the generation of aneuploid cells (i.e. with an abnormal chromosome number). Embryos containing aneuploid cells can exhibit developmental defects and lethality. Furthermore, cancer cells are often aneuploid. To prevent such deleterious aneuploidy, a control mechanism, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), delays metaphase-anaphase transition until all chromosomes are properly attached to spindle microtubules. However, the SAC is not efficient during early development in some species. During my thesis, I analyzed the activity of the SAC during the development of the marine chordate P. mammillata. I showed that in P. mammillata embryos, the SAC becomes efficient at the 8th cell cycle and its efficiency increases progressively in the following cell cycles. Although, I demonstrated that patterning of the embryo along the anteroposterior axis influences SAC efficiency, my experiments suggest that additional parameters modulate SAC efficiency. I searched the molecular mechanisms, which control SAC efficiency during development. I collected evidence showing that SAC components are present in oocytes and all post-fertilization stages. I found that SAC proteins localize at kinetochores during meiosis and at later stages when there is an efficient SAC while they do not accumulate on unattached kinetochores in early SAC deficient embryos. My thesis work establishes P. mammillata as a valuable experimental organism to study SAC regulation during embryogenesis.
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 12, 2020 - 3:36:26 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03001896, version 1

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Marianne Roca. The spindle assembly checkpoint in Phallusia mammillata embryos. Development Biology. Sorbonne Université, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SORUS500⟩. ⟨tel-03001896⟩

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